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LSH 



!GED 



Ein Cyfres Addysgiadol 

(OUR EDUCATIONAL SERIES) 
FOR ELEMENTARY, HIGHER GRADE, COUNTY AND 



EVENING SCHOOLS. 



CYFRES YSGOL Y PLANT BACH. 

GYDA DABLTTNIAU LLIWIEDIG. 

BORE BYWYD, 2g. DOF A QWYLLT, 2g. 

CARTRE IFOR, 2g. DYGWYL YN YR HAFOD, 2g. 

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III. IDWAL O NANT CLWYD. 

'' Chwedlau wedi eu llunio i'r'dim i ennyn dyddordeb plentyn, a'u 

hargraffu mewn llythyren fras, modd y gall y plant lleiaf yn yr ysgol 

eu darllen, gyda darluniau i'w difymr." LLAIS RHYDDID. 

MUR-LENI (WALL SHEETS): 26 mod. x 20 mod. Yn cynnwys 
y Wyddor, Fugyrau, Gwerei Graddoledig mewn Sillebu a Darllen. 
yr un ag yn y Deg o Wersi Cyntaf o PRIMER PART I. Llythyren 
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lingual Reader), Y Wyddor. Sillebu, Darllen. Darluniau, &c. 
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byddont yn alluog i ddarllen Cymraeg a Saesneg syml yn rhwydd. 

Ceir yn yr olaf ddetholiad byrr o farddoniaeth i'w adrodd. 

CYMRU'R PLANT: Pria 1g. ar y laf o bob mis. Trwy'r Post, 

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Defnyddir miloedd o hwn bob dydd yn yr Ysgolion Dydd fel 

"Reader. " gan ei newid bob mis. Llwyddiant mawr. 



HUGHES A'l FAB. C'YHOEDDWYR, GWREOSAM. 



CROVflLBV 

EIN CYFRES ADDYSGIADOL. 

CYFRES GWALIA. 

GAN AWDWB " A GUIDE TO WELSH," <fec., &c. 
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y llafariaid a'r gydsain derfynol mewn inc du, a'r gydsain 

ddechreuol mewn iuc coch. 28 o Ddarluniau, Llian Yatwyth, Ac. 
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Argraffiad Newydd, gyda Darluniau. Amlen, 6ch., Llian, I/- 



HUGHES A'l FAB. CYHOEDDWYR, WREXHAM. 



HUGHES' SERIES FOR DAY SCHOOLS. 



GUIDE- WELSH 



PART II. 



THOMAS JONES, M.A., 

Trinity College, Dublin. 



NEW EDITION : REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



WREXHAM : HUGHES AND SON, 86, HOPE STREET. 
LONDON : SIMPK1N, MARSHALL. HAMILTON, KENT, AWD Co., LTD. 



CONTENTS. 



THB MUTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 1 

THB VERB . . . . . . . . . . 2 

MOODS . . . . . . . . . . 3 

PARTICIPLES . . . . . . . . 5 

INFLECTED AND COMPOUND FORMS .. .. ..5 

Lesson. 

1. PRESENT TENSE .. .. .. .. ..6 

2. COMPOUND FORM . . . . . . . . . . 10 

3. IMPERFECT TENSE . . . . . . . . . . 13 

4. PERFECT TENSE . . . . . . . . . . 17 

5. do. do. .. .. .. .. ..20 

6. DIFFERENT FORMS OF THB VERB . . . . . . 22 

7. NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE . . .. .. ..26 

8. PLUPERFECT TENSE . . . . . . . . . . 29 

9. FUTURE TENSE .. .. .. .. ..32 

10. do. do. .. .. .. .. ..35 

11. FUTURE PERFECT . . . . . . . . . . 39 

12. THB SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD . . . . . . . . 41 

13. do. do. .. .. .. ..45 

14. THE IMPERATIYB MOOD . . . . . . . . 50 

15. Gallu, Medru .. .. .. .. ..53 

16. PRONOUNS WITH VERBS . . . . . . . . 55 

17. PASSIVE VOICE, PRESENT TENSB . . . . . . 60 

18. do. do. IMPERFECT TENSE, &c. . . . . . . 65 

19. do. do. FUTURE TENSE, &c. . . . . . . 70 

20. do. do. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD . . . . . . 74 

21. VOWEL CHANGF.S m VEEBB .. .. ,. ..81 



CONTENTS. Continued. 





PAGE. 


22. THE PRONOUN, PERSONAL, &c . . 


.. 83 


23- do. do. INTERROGATIVE, &c. . . . . 


.. 86 


24. THE ADVERB.. 


.. 89 


25. THE PREPOSITION 


.. 92 


26. THE CONJUNCTION 


.. 95 


27. H BEFORE INITIAL VOWELS 


.. 96 


28. IRREGULAR VERBS, Gwybod .. 


.. 98 


29. do. do. Adnabod, Adwacn 


.. 101 


30._ do. do. Dyf od, Dod 


.. 103 


31. do. do. Plyned 


.. 105 


32. do. do. Gwneud, Gwneuthur 


.. 107 


33. do. do. Gael, Caffael 


.. 110 


TABLE OF THE VERB DysgU . . 


.. 11-2 


do. do. do. Bod 


.. 113 


IARLLES Y FFYNON 


.. 114 


I WENOL GYNTAF Y TYMOR 


. . 138 


ABBREVIATIONS IN VOCABULARY 


. . 141 


VOCABULARY, WELSH . . 


. . 142 


VOCABULARY, ENGLISH . . > 


. . 158 



FOR REFERENCE. 



The Mutations. 







First 
Mutation. 


Second 

Mutation. 


Third 
Mutation. 


INITIAL 
LETTER. 


RADICAL. 


SOFT OR 
MIDDLE. 


NASAL. 


ASPIRATE. 




c 


cath, 


ei gath, 


fy nghath, 


ei chath, 


i 




a cat. 


his cat. 


my cat. 


her cat. 


> 


p 


pen, 
a head. 


ei ben, 
his head. 


fy mhen, 

my head. 


ei phen, 

her head. 




t 


tad, 


ei dad, 


fy nhad, 


ei thad, 






a father. 


his father. 


my father. 


her father. 




S 


gwallt, 


ei wallt, 


fy ngwallt, 




1 




hair. 


his hair. 


my hair. 




K 


b 


brawd, 
a brother. 


ei frawd, 
his brother. 


fy mrawd, 
my brother* 






d 


dant, 


ei ddant, 


fy nant, 








a tooth. 


his tooth. 


my tooth. 




4/ 

* i 


11 


Haw, 

a hand. 


ei law, 
his hand. 






/ 


m 


mam, 


ei fam, 




- 


s 




a mother. 


his mother. 






\ 


rh 


rhieni, ei r'ieni, 










parents. his parents. 







THE VERB. 



1. A Verb is a word which shows doing or being, as, 

Rhedais, I ran; Byddaf, I shall be. 

2. The Welsh Verb differs from the English Verb, 
inasmuch as it may be used without a Personal Pronoun 
as Nominative. The Pronoun is contained in the last 
letters of the Verb, 

Gwel-af, I see ; Gwel-odd, he saw. 
Gwel-som, we saw ; Gwel-sant, they saw. 

3. There are two kinds of Verbs, 

(1) Transitive Verbs. 

(2) Intransitive Verbs. 

A Transitive Verb is a Verb that has an Object, as, 

Gwerthais y ceffyl, I sold the horse. 
Here, y ceffyl, the horse, is the Object to the Verb 
Gwerthais, I sold. 

An Intransitive Verb is a Verb that has no Object, 

as, 

Rhedais at yr afon, I ran to the river. 

Here, Rhedais, Iran, has no Object; at yr afon, to 

the river, shows the direction in which I ran. 

4. Transitive Verbs have two forms called Voices, the 
Active Voice, and the Passive Voice. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



5. In the Active Voice the Object is governed by the 
Verb, and is in the Objective Case, as, 

Gwerthais y ceffyl, I sold the horse. 

Here, ceffyl, horse, is in the Objective Case, being- 
governed by the Verb, Gwerthais, I sold. 

6. In the Passive Voice the Object is put in the 
Nominative Case, as, 

Gwerthwyd y ceffyl, The horse was sold. 

Here, ceffyl, horse, is Nominative to the Verb 
Gwerthwyd, was sold. 

MOODS. 
Verbs have four Moods in Welsh, 

(1) The Infinitive Mood. 

(2) The Indicative Mood. 

(3) The Subjunctive Mood. 

(4) The Imperative Mood. 

2. The Infinitive Mood is like a Noun because it 
names the action, and on this account it is sometimes 
called the Verb-Noun. 

3. Verbs in the Infinitive Mood have generally cer- 
tain endings, as, gwerth-u, to sell ; cysg-u, to sleep,- 
cerdd-ed, to walk; clyw-ed, to hear; llif-o, to flow ; 
tor-i, to break ; bwyt-a, to eat ; rhed-eg, to run ; llef-ain, 
to cry. 

4. That part of the word which is left after removing 
the ending is called the Stem of the Verb. Thus, 

gwerth is the stem of gwerth-u, to sell. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



gwel is the stem of gwel-ed, to see. 
llif is the stem of llit-o, to flow. 
rhed is the stem ol rhed-eg, to run. 

5. In some cases the Verb has no ending and the 
Infinitive and the Stem are the same: ateb, to answer ; 
dangos, to show ; dewis, to chose ; darllen, to read ; aros, 
to stay ; gosod, to place. 

6. A Finite Verb is a Verb that expresses Tense, 
Number, and Person, as, 

Clywais, / heard ; Canodd, he sang. 

7. Every Finite Verb is in one of the three Moods, 
Indicative, Subjunctive, or Imperative. 

8. The Indicative Mood states a fact or is used in 
asking a question, as, 

Agorodd Arthur y drws, Arthur opened the door. 
Here, agorodd, opened, states a fact as to what 
Arthur did. 

A agorodd Arthur y drws ? Did Arthur open the door. 
Here, a question is asked as to what Arthur did. 

9. The Subjunctive Mood is used to express a 
condition or a doubt, as, 

Pe dysgem, if we learnt. 

This Mood expresses what is thought of in the mind 
and not an actual fact. 

10. The Imperative Mood is used toje'xpress a 
command, as, 

Eistedd i lawr, sit down (eistedd, singular). 
Darllenwch y llyfr, read the book (darllenwch, plural). 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



PARTICIPLES. 

i Participles are expressed in Welsh by placing 
certain Prepositions before the Infinitive Verb. 

2. The Imperfect or Present Participle Active is 

expressed by putting yn before the Infinitive Verb; as, 

yn canu, sing-ing; yn darllen, read-ing. 

3. The Perfect or Past Participle Active is expressed 
by putting wedi (or gwedi) before the Infinitive Verb; 

as, 

wedi canu, sung, or having sung. 

wedi clywed, heard, or having heard. 

4. The Passive Participle is expressed by putting cael 
and a Possessive Pronoun between the Preposition and 
the Infinitive Verb. 

Imperfect or Present Participle Passive, 

Yr wyf yn cael fy holi, / am questioned, or / am 
being questioned. 

Perfect or Past Participle Passive, 

Yr wyf wedi cael fy holi, / have been questioned. 

FORMS OF THE VERB. 

1. The Verb in Welsh has two Forms, 

(1) The Inflected Form. 

(2) The Compound Form. 

2. The Inflected Form is expressed by adding certain 
endings to the Stem of the Verb. 

3. The Stem of the Verb is generally found by 
removing the Infinitive ending; as, clyw-ed, to hear; 
ed is the Infinitive ending, and clyw the Stem, to 
which the endings are added. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



Clyw-af, I hear ; Clyw-ais, I heard. 
Clyw-odd, he heard ; Clyw-som, we heard. 

4. The Compound Form is expressed by some Form 
of the Verb Bod, to be, with a Preposition followed by 
the Verb in the Infinitive, 

Yr wyf yn canu, 1 am singing. 

Yr ydym wedi clywed, we have heard. 

5. Inflected Verbs are of two kinds, Regular and 
Irregular. 

A Regular Verb takes the Finite endings without any 
change. 

In certain Tenses some of the Regular Verbs change 
their Stem vowels, as, cer-ais, / loved, from car-u to 
love. Here the Stem vowel a is changed into e. 

An Irregular Verb has changes both in its Stem and 
endings. The following Verbs are irregular, myned, 
to go ; dyfod or dod, to come ; gwneud or gwneuthur, to 
do, to make; gwybod, to know ; adwaen or adnabod, to 
know, to be acquainted with , cael, to have. 

6. Both kinds of Verbs, Regular and Irregular, are 
used with the Forms of the Verb Bod, to be. 



LESSON i. 

ACTIVE VOICE. INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

I. The Present Tense expresses an action going on 
at the present time, as, 
Gwelaf, I see. 
Yr wyf yn darllen, / am reading. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. FART II. 



2. The Present Tense is also used to express an action 
often repeated, or done from habit or custom, as, 

Byddaf yn cerdded i'r pentref bob wythnos, 
I walk to the village every week. 
Byddwn yn clywed yn ami am eich brawd, 
We often hear about your brother. 

(d) INFLECTED FORM. 

3. The same Inflected Form is used in Welsh for the 
Present and Future Tenses. 

ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

ist Person -af -wn 

2nd -i -wch 

3rd -a -ant 

(or no ending-). 

4. These endings are to be added to the Stem of the 
Verb, 

Gwel-ed, to see, Qwel-, stem. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . Gwel-af, / see. Gwel-wn, we see. 

2. Gwel-i, thou seest. Gwel-wch, you see. 

3. Gwel, he sees. Gwel-ant, they see. 

() COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Yr wyf (fi) yn darllen, / am reading, I read. 

2. Yr wyt (ti) yn darllen, thou art reading, thou readest. 

3. Y mae (ef) yn darllen, he is leading, he reads. 
Y mae (hi) yn darllen, she is reading, she reads. 



8 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr ym (ni) yn darllen, we are reading, zve read. 

2. Yr ych (chwi) yn darllen, you are reading, you read. 

3. Y maent (hwy) yn darllen, they are reading, they read. 

5. In the Present Tense the Compound Form (&} is 
more used than the Inflected Form (a). 

6. The Pronouns, placed within brackets after the 
Verbs, are generally used to show emphasis. 

7. In the Compound Form, the long or the short forms 
oiydwyf, wyf, &c., may be used, as there is no difference 
in their meanings. 

These forms are, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . wyf, ydwyf, / am. ym, ydym, we are. 

2. wyt, ydwyt, thou art. ych, ydych, you arc. 

3. yw, ydyw, -j he is, ynt, ydynt, 
mae, J /'/ is. maent, 

(0 COMPOUND FORM OF HABIT OR CUSTOM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Byddaf (fi) yn gweithio, I am (in the habit of) working. 

2. Byddi (di) yn gweithio, thou art (in the habit of) working. 

3. Bydd (ef) yn gweithio, he is (in the habit of) working. 
Bydd (hi) yn gweithio, she is (in the habit of) working. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Byddwn (ni) yn gweithio, we are (in the habit of) working. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) yn gweithio, you are (in the habit of) 

working. 

3. Byddant (hwy) yn g, ,/eithio, they are in the habit -jf) 

working. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



8. Habit or Custom may be also expressed by the 
Compound Form (b) wyf, &c., but it is better expressed 
by the Compound Form (c) byddaf, &c. 

VOCABULARY. 



MEANING. 


INFINITIVE VERB. 


STEM. 


To walk 


cerdd-ed 


cerdd- 


To hear 


clyw-ed 


clyw- 


To see 


gwel-ed 


gwel- 


To drink 


yf-ed 


yf- 


To eat 


bwyt-a 


bwyt- 


To wear ~\ 






To dress j" 


g-wisg--o 


gwisg-- 


To burn 


llosg-i 


llosg-- 



givers, a lesson. dillad, clothes. 

y wers, the lesson. bob dydd, every day. 

EXERCISE i. 

i. Gwelaf y ceffyl yn y cae. 2. Clywaf y plant yn yr 
ysgol. 3. Gwelwn y Hong ar y mor. 4. Y mae y plant 
yn darllen y wers. 5. Yr ydych yn gwisg-o dillad da. 
6. Y maent hwy yn darllen y papur. 7. Byddaf yn 
cerdded i'r ysgx>l bob dydd. 8. Y mae y fuwch a'r ceffyl 
yn yfed dwfr. 9. Yr ydym yn canu yn yr ysgol. IO. Y 
mae y plant yn llosgi y papur. 11. Gwelaf yr afal yn 
Haw y bachg-en. 12. Byddwn yn bwyta ac yn yfed bob 
dydd. 13. Y mae hi yn bwyta afal mawr coch. 

The following- sentences are to be translated, (i) by 
the Inflected, and (2) by the Compound Forms, 

i. I see the ship on the sea. 2. We see the children 



IO A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

in school. 3. I see the cow and the horse in the field. 
4. We hear the children singing in school. 5. I see the 
paper in the boy's hand. 6. They see the apple. 

The following sentences are to be translated by the 
Compound Forms only, 

i. We wear good clothes. 2. You wear good clothes. 
3. The children burn the paper. 4. She is singing in 
school. 5. We are (in the habit ofj walking to school 
every day. 6. She is eating the apple. 7. The children 
are reading the lesson. 8. I am reading the paper. 
9. He is singing. 10. I am eating an apple. 



LESSON a. 

COMPOUND FORM. 
NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. 

NEGATIVE. 

i. The Compound Form, wyf, &c., is made negative by 
placing nid, not, before the Verb, as, 

Nid wyf yn darllen, I am not reading, I do not read. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Nid wyf (fi) yn bwyta, I am not eating, I do not eat. 

2. Nid wyt (ti) yn bwyta, thou art not eating, thou dost 

not eat. 

3. Nid yw (ef) yn bwyta, he is not eating, he does not 

eat. 

Nid yw (hi) yn bwyta, she is not eating, she does not 
eat. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. I I 

PLURAL. 

1. Nid ydym (ni) yn bwyta, we are not eating, we do 

not eat. 

2. Nid ydych (chvvi) yn bwyta, you are not eating, you 

do not eat. 

3. Nid ydynt (hwy) yn bwyta, they are not eating, they 

do not eat. 

INTERROGATIVE. 

2. The Compound Form of the Present and other 
Tenses is made interrogative by placing a before the 
Verb, as, 

A ydych chwi yn darllen llythyr ? Ydym. 
Are you reading a letter ? We are, or Yes. 

3. The answer is always given in the longer form, 
y dwyf , / am, or Yes ; nac ydwyf , / am not, or No. 

SINGULAR. 

1. A wyf (fi) yn darllen ? Am I reading ? Do I read? 

2. A wyt (ti) yn darllen ? Art thou reading ? Dost thou 

read ? 

3. A yw (ef) yn darllen ? Is he reading ? Does he read? 
A yw (hi) yn darllen ? Is she reading? Does she read? 

PLURAL. 
I. A ydym (ni) yn darllen? Are we reading? Do we 

read? 
"2. A ydych (chwi) yn darllen? Are you reading? Do 

you read? 

3. A ydynt (hwy) yn darllen ? Are they reading ? Do 
they read? 



12 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE. 
4. An Interrogative sentence is made negative by 
putting- ddim, not, nothing, after the Pronoun. Ddim is 
the First Mutation of Dim. 

SINGULAR. 

1. A wyf fi ddim yn canu ? Am I not singing? Do I net 

sing? 

2. A wyt ti ddim yn canu? Art thou not singing? Dost 

thou not sing ? 

3. A yw ef ddim yn canu? Is he not singing? Does he 

not sing? 

A yw hi ddim yn canu ? Is she not singing ? Does she 
not sing ? 

PLURAL. 

1 . A ydym ni ddim yn canu ? Are we not singing ? Do we 

not sing? 

2. A ydych chwi ddim yn canu ? Are you not singing ? 

Do you not sing ? 

3. A ydynt hwy ddim yn canu ? Are they not singing? 

Do they not sing ? 

EXERCISE 2. 

i. Nid wyf yn clywed y plant yn canu. 2. A ydych 
chwi yn cerdded i'r pentref bob dydd ? Ydym. 3. A 
ydynt hwy yn llosgi y papur gwyn ? Nac ydynt ; ond y 
maent yn llosgi y papur coch. 4. Nid yw ef yn gwisgo 
dillad da. 5. Yr ydym ni yn bwyta ac yn yfed bob dydd. 
6. A ydych chwi ddim yn darllen y llyfr ? Ydym ; ond 
nid ydym yn darllen y papur. 7. Nid yw y fuwch yn 
yfed y dwfr. 8. A oes ceffyl yn y cae ? Oes. 9. Yr wyf 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 13 

fi yn darllen, ac y mae Arthur yn siarad. 10. A ydych 
chwi yn aros yn y dref? Ydym. u. Nid yw hi yn 
cerdded i'r dref bob dydd. 12. Nid ydych yn bwyta. 

i. She is not burning the paper. 2. I am not staying 
in the village. 3. Is he reading the red book ? Yes ; 
he reads and writes every day. 4. Do you wear good 
clothes ? Yes, I wear good clothes every day. 5. Does 
he eat and drink every day ? Yes. 6. Do you not sing 
every day ? Yes. 7. They do not hear the children in 
school. 8. She is not reading the book. 9. The children 
are not reading the lesson. 10. I am not singing. 



LESSON 3. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

1. The Imperfect Tense expresses an action going on, 
but not completed at a certain past time, as, 

Yr oeddvvn yn darllen pan y clywais eich llais. 
/ was reading when I heard your voice. 

Here the action expressed by " oeddwn yn darllen," 
I was reading, was going on but it was not completed 
when I heard your voice. Hence " oeddwn yn darllen," 
I was reading, is said to be in the Imperfect Tense. 

2. The Imperfect Tense also expresses an action done 
from habit or custom, as, 

Cerddai i'r ysgol bob dydd. 
Ht walked to school every day, i.e., he used to 
walk to school every day. 



14 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Dodent ef beunydd wrth y porth. 
They laid (used to lay) him daily at the gate. 
Treuliai y dynion y rhan fwyaf o'r amser yn trin y tir. 
The men spent (used to spend] the greater part of the time in 
tilling the soil. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. -wn -em 

2. -it -ech 

3. -ai -ent 

Dysg-u, to learn, to teach. Dysg-, stem. 
SINGULAR. 

1. Dysg-wn (i), I learnt, I used to learn. 

2. Dysg-it (ti), thou learnedst, thou usedst to learn. 

3. Dysg-ai (ef), he learnt, he used to learn. 
Dysg-ai (hi), she learnt, she used to learn, 

PLURAL. 

1. Dysg-em (ni), we learnt, we used to learn. 

2. Dysg-ech (chwi), you learnt, you used to learn. 

3. Dysg-ent (hwy), they learnt, they used to learn. 

3. Dysgu means to learn, and also to teach. 

EXAMPLES. 

Y mae y plant yn dysgu y wers. 
The children are learning the lesson 
Yr wyf fi yn dysgu y plant i chwaretu 
/ am teaching the children to play. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 15 

(6) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Yr oeddwn (i) yn rhedeg, I was running. 

2. Yr oeddit (ti) yn rhedeg, thou wast running. 

3. Yr oedd (ef) yn rhedegf, he was running. 
Yr oedd (hi) yn rhedeg", she was running. 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr oeddem (ni) yn rhedeg, we were running. 

2. Yr oeddech (chwi) yn rhedeg, you were running. 

3. Yr oeddent (hwy) yn rhedeg, they were running. 
4. In the 3rd Person Singular ydoedd is sometimes 

used for oedd with the same meaning ; as, 

Yr ydoedd (ef) yn rhedeg, he was running. 

(c) COMPOUND FORM OF HABIT OR CUSTOM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Byddwn (i) yn gweithio, I used to work, I worked. 

2. Byddit (ti) yn gweithio, thou usedst to work, thou- 

workedst. 

3. Byddai (ef) yn gweithio, he used to work, he 

worked. 

Byddai (hi) yn gweithio, she used to work, she 
worked. 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddem (ni) yn gweithio, we used to work, we worked. 

2. Byddech (chwi) yn gweithio, _>w/ used to work,you 

worked. 

3. Byddent (hwy) yn gweithio, they used to work, they 

worked. 



l6 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

VOCABULARY. 

MEANING. INFINITIVE VERB. STEM. 

to buy pryn-u pryn- 

to sell gwerth-u g-werth- 

to work gfweithi-o g-weithi- 

to speak, to talk siarad siarad- 

to follow dilyn dilyn- 

to finish g-orffen gorffen- 

to tell, to recite adrodd adrodd- 

awr, f. an hour. chwedl, f. a story, a fable. 

oriau, hours. chvvedlau, stories, fables. 

blaenor, m. a leader. milwr, m. a soldier. 

gwaith, m. work. milwyr, soldiers. 

EXERCISE 3. 

i. Darllenai y papur bob dydd. 2. Dilynai y ci y 
plant i'r ysgol. 3. Adroddem y chwedlau yn yr ysgol. 
4. Dysgent y plant i adrodd y chwedl. 5. Nid oedd y 
blaenor yn dilyn y milwyr. 6 A oedd y milwr yn dilyn 
y blaenor ? Oedd. 7. Treuliai y dyn yr amser yn adrodd 
chwedlau. 8. Yr oeddent hwy yn gorffen y gwaith. 
9. Byddai yn gweithio yn y Hong- bob dydd. 10. Byddai 
y plant yn dilyn y milwyr am oriau. 1 1 . Nid oedd y 
plant yn siarad yn yr ysgol. 12. Yr oedd y dyn yn 
prynu ac yn gwerthu. 13. Yr oedd ef vn siarad pan 
oeddem yn darllen. 14. Gweithient am oriau yn y cae. 

The following sentences are to be translated, (i) by 
the Inflected Form, (2) by the Compound Form (<:). 
I. They used to read the paper every day. 2. We 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 17 

used to sing in school. 3. They used to learn the 
lessons every day. 4. She used to read in the house. 
5. I used to tell a story. 6. The soldiers used to follow 
the leader. 7. The man used to tell the story. 

The following sentences are to be translated by the 
Compound Form (b~). 

i. You were singing. 2. I was buying and selling. 
3. He was finishing the work. 4. I was writing when I 
heard your voice. 5. We were speaking when he was 
singing. 6. She was teaching the children to write. 
7. The soldiers were following the leader. 



LE55ON 4- 

PERFECT TENSE, 
i. The Perfect Tense is of two kinds, 

(1) Perfect Indefinite. 

(2) Perfect Definite. 

2. The Perfect Indefinite or Aorist expresses a past 
action without any reference to the present, as, 

Gwelais y dyn, / saw the man. 
Hwyliodd y Hong dros y mor. 
The ship sailed over the sea. 

3. The Perfect Definite expresses an action as only 
just completed, as, 

Yr wyf wedi canu, / have sung. 

Y mae hi wedi darllen y llythyr, she has read the letter. 



1 8 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. -ais -asom 

2. -aist -asoch 

3. -odd -asant 

Rhed-eg-, to run. Rhed-, stem 

SINGULAR. 

1. Rhed-ais (i), I ran. 

2. Rhed-aist (ti), thou rannest. 

3. Rhed-odd (ef) he ran. 
Rhed-odd (hi), she ran. 

PLURAL. 

1. Rhed-asom (ni), we ran. 

2. Rhed-asoch (chwi),^ ran. 

3. Rhed-asant (hwy), they ran. 

4. In some Verbs the initial letter a of the Plural 
ending is omitted, as 
Gwel-ed, to see ; Clyw-ed, to hear ; Gwrandaw, to listen. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . Gwel-ais (i), / saw. Gwel-som (ni), w e saw. 

2. Gwel-aist (ti), thou sawest. Gwel-soch (chwi),^ saw. 

3. Gwel-odd (ef ), he saw. Gwel-sant (hwy), they saw. 
Gwel-odd (hi), she saw. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 19 

(6) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Yr wyf (fi) wedi prynu, / have bought. 

2. Yr wyt (ti) wedi prynu, thou hast bought. 

3. Y mae (ef) wedi prynu, he has bought. 
Y mae (hi) wedi prynu, she has bought. 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr ym (ni) wedi prynu, we have bought. 

2. Yr ych (chwi) wedi prynu, you have bought. 

3. Y maent (hwy) wedi prynu, they have bought. 

EXERCISE 4- 

i. Prynais y ceffyl yn y ffair am ugain punt. 

2. Gwerthodd eich tad y fuwch ddu am saith punt. 

3. Cerddodd y plant i'r ysgol. 4. Darllenodd Olwen y 
chwedl yn y llyfr coch. 5. Gwelsom y plant yn chv 'areu 
yn y cae. 6. Gwelais y Hong- yn hwylio dros y mor. 
7. Clywsoch y dyn yn canu. 8. Gwrandawodd y |>iant 
pan oedd y meistr yn siarad. 9. Yr ydym wedi prynu 
dau geffyl. 10. Y mae Arthur wedi gwerthu y fuwch 
goch. 1 1. Y mae y milwyr wedi dilyn y blaenor. I.I. Yr 
wyf wedi gorffen y gwaith. 13. Yfais y dwfr. 

Translate the following sentences by the Inflected 
Form, 

i. I bought the cow in the fair for ten pounds. 2. Your 
father sold the white horse for eight pounds. 3. I 
read the lesson in the book. 4. She learnt the lesson 
in school. 5. We saw the boy in the field. 6. You 
heard the girl singing in the house. 7- We listened. 



2O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Translate the following sentences by the Compound 
Form, 

I. We have sold the horse and the cow. 2. The man 
has finished the work. 3. We have read the letter. 
4. She has burnt the paper. 5. Have you read the 
book ? Yes. 6. I have eaten the apple. 7. They have 
read the red book. 8. I have followed the children to 
the field. 9. Your father has bought a cow and two 
horses. 10. She has read the fable in the book, 
ii. The soldiers have finished the work. 12 He has 
not read the letter. 13. They have eaten the bread. 



LESSON 5- 

PERFECT TENSE (Continued). 
(c) FIRST COMPOUND PROGRESSIVE FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Yi wyf (fi) wedi bod yn gwerthu, / have been selling. 

2. Yr wyt (ti) wedi bod yn g-werthu, thou hast been selling. 

3. Y mae (ef) wedi bod yn gwerthu, he has been selling. 
Y mae (hi) wedi bod yn g-werthu, she has been selling. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Yr ym (ni) wedi bod yn g-werthu, we have been selling. 

2. Yr ych (chwi) wedi bod yn gwerthu,_yo have been selling. 

3. Y maent (hwy) wedi bod yn gwerthu, they have been 

selling. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 21 

(0 SECOND COMPOUND PROGRESSIVE FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Bum (i) yn bwyta, I have been eating. 

2. Buost (ti) yn bwyta, thou hast been eating. 

3. Bu (ef) yn bwyta, he has been eating. 
Bu (hi) yn bwyta, she has been eating. 

PLURAL. 

1. Buom (ni) yn bwyta, we have been eating. 

2. Buoch (chwi) yn bwyta, you have been eating. 

3. Buont (hwy) yn bwyta, they have been eating. 

EXERCISE 5. 

i . Yr wyf wedi bod yn prynu defaid. 2. Y maent hwy 
wedi bod yn cerdded. 3. A ydych chwi wedi bod yn 
darllen y llyfr ? Nac ydwyf. 4. Bum yn rhedeg at y 
Hong-. 5. Buom yn bwyta bara. 6. Buont yn dysgu y 
plant yn yr ysgol. 7. Buom yn golchi dillad. 

Translate the following- sentences by the Progressive 
Forms (c] and (</). 

i. She has been writing. 2. We have been running. 
3. They have been working in the ship. 4. You have 
been reading the paper. 5. The children have been 
learning the lesson. 6. I have been working. 7. The 
soldiers have been following the leader. 8. You have 
been following the bull. 9. We have been walking. 
IO. She has been washing clothes in the lake. 1 1. Have 
you been eating apples ? No. I have been working in 
the field for hours. 12. She has been buying gloves. 



22 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

LES5ON 6. 

DIFFERENT FORMS OF THE VERB. 

i. In every Tense of the Indicative Mood the Finite 
Verb in Welsh may be expressed in several ways with 
hardly any difference in meaning-. 

First Way. The Finite Verb may be used alone, as, 

Gwelaf, I see; Cerddais, I walked. 
Second Way. The Verb may be used with a Personal 
Pronoun following it as Nominative, as, 

Gwelaf fi, / see; Cerddodd ef, he walked. 

Third Way. The Personal Pronoun Nominative may 
precede the Verb. The Particle a is then placed 
between the Nominative and the Verb, and the initial 
letter of the Verb, if mutable, is changed into the 
Middle Form, as, 
Mi a gerddais, I walked. Hi a ddysgodd, she learnt. 

The initial letter of cerddais, is c, the Middle Form 
of which is g. 

The initial letter of dysgodd is d, the Middle Form ot 
which is dd. 

Fowth Way. The Particle Fe may be placed before 
the Verb, and the initial letter of the Verb, if mutable, is 
chang-ed into the Middle Form, as, 

Fe glywais, / heard. Fe brynais, / lought. 

The initial letter of clywais is c, the Middle Form of 
which is g. 

The initial letter of prynais is p, the Middle Form of 
which is b. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 23 

2. The Particles a and fe govern the Middle Form, 
that is, the initial letter of the Verb coming' after them, if 
mutable, is changed into the Middle Form. 

3. The Particles a and fe are not translated. 

EXAMPLES. 

THIRD WAY. 

With the Personal Pronoun Nominative and the 
Particle a. 

Gwel-ed, to see. Gwel-, stem, wel-, Middle Form. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Mi a welaf, / see'. Ni a welwn, we see. 

2. Ti a weli, thou seest. Chwi a welwch, j/o# see. 

3. Efe a wel, he sees. Hwy a welant, they see. 
Hi a wel, she sees. 

FOURTH WAY. 

With the Particle Fe. 
Clyw-ed to see. Clyw-, stem, glyw-, Middle Form. 

PERFECT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Fe glywais (i), Fe glywsom (ni), 
/ heard. we heard. 

2. Fe glywaist (ti), Fe glywsoch (chwi), 
thou heardest. you heard. 

3. Fe glywodd (ef), Fe glywsant (hwy), 
he heard. they heard. 

Fe glywodd (hi), 
she heard. 



24 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 

THIRD WAY. FOURTH WAY. MEANING. 

Mi a brynais. Fe brynais (i). / bought. 

Mi a g-erddais. Fe g-erddais (i). I walked. 

Mi a werthais. Fe werthais (i). I sold. 

Mi a ddarllenais. Fe ddarllenais (i). I read. 

Efe a ddysgodd. Fe ddysgfodd (ef). He learnt. 

Mi a ddilynais. Fe ddilynais (i). I followed. 

Mi a redais. Fe redais (i). I ran 

4. Rule. When the Object follows the Finite Verb, its 
initial letter, if mutable, is changed into the Middle 
Form, as, 

Prynais geffyl, / bought a horse. 

Here, Prynais, / bought, is a Finite Verb, and the 
Object, geffyl, a horse, has the initial letter g, which is 
the Middle Form of c. 

When the Object follows the Infinitive Verb, the 
initial letter is not changed, as, 

Yr wyf wedi prynu ceffyl, 
/ have bought a horse. 

5. The Object may be either a Noun or an Infinitive 
Verb, as, 

(a) Dysg-ais ganu, / learnt to sing. 

(V) Yr wyf yn dysgu canu, / am learning to sing. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 25 





VOCABULARY. 




MEANING. 


INFINITIVE VERB. 


STEM. 


to reap 
to give * 
to put } 

to melt 


med-i 
rhodd-i 
todd-i 


med- 
rhodd- 
todd- 


to shout 


bloedd-io 


bloeddi- 


to smih 


gwen-u 


srwen- 



yn araf, slowly. pan, when. 

ysgwydd, f. shoulder. Haw, f. a hand. 
plwm, m. lead. eira, m. snow. 

EXERCISE 6. 

i. Fe welais geffyl du yn y flair. 2. Fe brvnais lyfr 
pan oeddwn yn y dref. 3. Fe losgodd eich tad ddau 
bapur. 4. Mi a ddysgais y wers. 5. Fe floeddiodd y 
dyn yn y cae. 6. Chwi a welsoch ddwy long ar y mor. 
7. Mi a roddais yr afal i Arthur. S. Fe roddodd eich 
mam ei Haw ar ysgwydd Arthur. 9. Mi a wenais pan 
adroddodd eich tad y chwedl. 10. Toddais y plwm yn y 
tan. 1 1. Fe- ddysgodd ganu pan oedd yn y dref. 

Translate the following sentences (i) according 1 to the 
Third Way, (2) according to the Fourth Way. 

i. I sold a cow in the fair. 2. She bought a book in 
town. 3. Your brother walked slowly to school. 4. We 
saw your brother writing a letter. 5. She wrote the 
fable in the book. 6. I gave the book to Olwen. 
7. Arthur smiled when Olwen told the story. 8. He 
melted the lead in the fire. 9. Your father bought a 
white horse. 10. I learnt to read when I was in school- 



26 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

LESSON 7- 

NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. 
NEGATIVE. 

1. An Inflected Verb is made Negative by placing- ni 
or nid, not, before it. 

Ni is used before Verbs beginning with a consonant, 
and nid before Verbs beginning with a vowel. 

2. When the Verb follows ni, not, its initial consonant 
is changed as follows, 

A mutable consonant of the First Class, c, p, t, is 
changed into the Aspirate Form, ch, ph, th. 

Mutable consonants of the Second and Third Classes, 
K. b, d, and 11, m, rh, are changed into the Middle 
Forms, w, f, dd, and 1, f, r. 

EXAMPLES. 

FIRST CLASS. 

clywais, I heard; ni chlywais, I did not hear. 
prynais, 1 bought ; ni phrynais, I did not buy. 
toddais, I melted; ni thoddais, I did not melt. 

SECOND CLASS. 

gwelaf, I see; ni welaf, I do not see. 

boddais, I drowned; ni foddais, I did not drown, 

dysgais, 1 learnt ; ni ddysgais, I did not learn. 

THIRD CLASS. 

llenwais, I filled; ni lenwais. / did not fill. 
medais, / reaped; ni fedais, / did not reap. 
rhedais, I ran; ni redais, I did not run. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART H. 2J 

4. Nid, not, is placed before Verbs beginning- with 
a vowel, as, 

Nid eisteddais, I did not sit. 
Nid edrychodd, he did not look. 

5. Verbs beginning- with g omit that letter in the 
Middle Form and take ni, not nid, when Negative, as, 

Gosodais, I placed, ni osodais, / did not place. 
Gellvvch, you can, ni ellwch, you can not. 

6. In English, do, Present Tense, (did, Past Tense), 
is used as an Auxiliary with the Principal Verb to make 
it Negative, and the Principal Verb is changed into the 
Infinitive. 

He laughs ; Negative, he does not laugh. 

In the Negative sentence, laugh is in the Infinitive Mood. 

INTERROGATIVE. 

7. An Inflected Verb is made Interrogative by placing 
a before it, and the initial letter of the Verb, if mutable, 
is changed into the Middle Form. 

Darllenodd y bachgen, the boy read. 

A ddarllenodd y bachgen ? Did the boy read? 

Gwelsoch, j^tt saw ; A welsoch chwi ? Did you see? 

8. In English, do, Present Tense, (did, Past Tense), 
is used with the Principal Verb to make it Interrogative, 
and the Principal Verb is changed into the Infinitive. 
See No. 6 in this lesson. 

9. The answer to a question is made by repeating the 
Verb in the proper Person, as, 

A welwch chwi y plant ? Gwelwn. 
Do you see the children P We do, or yes. 



28 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

When the answer is Negative, it is preceded by na 
before consonants, or nac before vowels in such Verbs 
as wyf, oes, oedd, &c. 

A welwch chwi y plant ? Gwelwn, na welwn. 
Do you see the children f We do, we do not. 
A oedd y dyn yno ? Nac oedd. 
Was the man there f He was not. No. 
10. When the Verb is in the Perfect Indefinite Tense 
(Aorist) the answer may be made in two ways. 

(a) by repeating the Verb as above. 

(b) by do, yes, in affirmative sentences, and by naddo, 
no, in Negative Sentences, as, 

A welsoch chwi y dyn ? Did you see the man i> 

(a) Gwelais, I did; na welais, I did not. 

(b) Do, yes ; naddo, no. 

EXERCISE 7. 

i. Ni wisgais i y dillad. 2. A brynodd eich mam 
ddillad newydd ? Naddo. 3. Ni welaf fi y plant yn y 
dref. 4. Nid atebais i y llythyr. 5. A ddarllenodd eich 
tad y papur? Do. 6. Ni chlywsom ni y plant yn canu. 

7. A welsoch chwi y bachgen yn chwareu ? Naddo. 

8. Ni werthodd eich tad y tarw. 9. Ni siaradodd. 
Translate. 

i. Did you see the boy in school ? I did. 2. Do you 
see the black horse in the field? I do. 3. Did you 
hear the children sing? No, I did not hear the children 
sing. 4. The man did not break the window. 5. I did 
not drown the dog. 6. He did not open the door. 7. I 
did not put my hand on your father's shoulder. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 2Q 

LESSON 8. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

1. The Pluperfect Tense expresses an action as 
completed at some past time before another action had 
taken place. 

2. The Inflected Forms of this Tense are chiefly used 
in subjoined clauses, as, 

(a) Gyrais ymaith y ci a laddasai y ddafad. 
/ drove away the dog that had killed the sheep. 

(3) Fe wnaeth y gwas fel y gx>rchymynasai ei feistr. 
The servant did as his master had commanded. 

The subjoined clause in (a) is, a laddasai y ddafad ; 
in (It) fel y gorchymynasai ei feistr. 

In (a) the action expressed by laddasai, had killed, was 
completed before the action expressed by gyrais, drove, 
had taken place. 

In (b) the action expressed by gorchymynasai, had 

commanded, was completed before the action expressed 
by wnaeth, did, had taken place. 

3. The Compound Forms of this Tense are oftener 
used than the Inflected Form. 

OTHER EXAMPLES. 

1. Gwrthododd Cai roddi yr hyn a addawsai Arthur. 
Cat refused to give what Arthur had promised. 

2. Y gwr a welswn yn y boreu a ddaeth at y drws. 
The man that I had seen in the morning came to the door. 

3. Gofynodd Arthur os cysgasai efe ychydig\ 
Arthur asked if he had slept a little. 



3O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



4. Gwelai y g-weision yn saethu fel y gwelsai Cynon 

hwynt. 
He saw the servants shooting as Cynon had seen them. 

5. Ni ddrylliasai y Hew yr asyn. 

The lion had not torn the ass into pieces. 

6. Daeth i'r man lie yr oedd y saeth a saethasal ei 

gyfaill. 

He came to the place where the arrow was that his 
friend had shot. 

7. Nid anghofiodd y g-enethod y g-wersi a ddysgasent 

yn yr ysgol. 

The girls did not forget the lessons which they had 
learnt in school. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. -aswn -asem 

2. -asit -asech 

3. -asai -asent 

Car-u, to love. car-, stem. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Car-aswn (i), 1 had loved. 

2. Car-asit (ti), thou hadst loved. 

3. Car-asai (ef), he had loved. 
Car-asai (hi), she had loved. 

PLURAL. 

1. Car-asem (ni), we had loved. 

2. Car-asech (chwi),^*/ had loved. 

3. Car-asent (hwy), they had loved. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 31 

(6) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Yr oeddwn (i; wedi cysgu, I had slept. 

2. Yr oeddit (ti) wedi cysgu, thou hadst slept. 

3. Yr oedd (ef) wedi cysgu, he had slept. 
Yr oedd (hi) wedi cysgu, she had slept. 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr oeddem (ni) wedi cysgu, we had slept. 

2. Yr oeddech (chwi) wedi cysgu, you had slept. 

3. Yr oeddent (hwy) wedi cysgu, they had slept. 

(c) COMPOUND PROGRESSIVE FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Yr oeddwn (i) wedi bod yn galw, I had been calling. 

2. Yr oeddit (ti) wedi bod yn galw, thou hadst been calling. 

3. Yr oedd (ef) wedi bod yn galw, he had been calling. 
Yr oedd (hi) wedi bod yn galw, she had been calling. 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr oeddem (ni) wedi bod yn galw, we had been calling. 

2. Yr oeddech (chwi) wedi bod yn galw, you had been 

calling. 

3. Yr oeddent (hwy) wedi bod yn galw, they had been 

calling. 

EXERCISE 8. 

i . Cerddodd y gwas i'r dref fel y gorchymynasai ei 
feistr. 2. Y wraig a welsai yn y boreu a ddaeth at y 
drws. 3. Gwelodd y gwas y ci a laddasai y ddafad. 
4. Yr oeddwn wedi gorffen y llythyr pan ddaeth eich 
brawd i'r ty. 5. Yr odd eich tad wedi prynu ceffyl pan 
y gwelais ef yn y dref. 6. Nid oeddent wedi gweithio. 



32 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Translate sentences I, 2, 3, by the Inflected Form, and 

sentences 4, 5, 6, by the Compound Forms. 

,/ 

1. The man killed the lion that had torn~4he ass to 

pieces. 

2. I saw the dog- that had killed the sheep. 

3. The boy that he had seen in school came to the door. 

4. I had read the book in the morning. 

5. We had not sold the white cow when we saw your 

father. 

6. They had been walking 1 for an hour in the morning-. 

7. I had been calling- the boy when 1 saw you. 



LESSON 9- 

FUTURE TENSE. 

1. The Future Tense shows that an action will take 
place at some future time, as, 

Ni a ddarllenwn eich llyfr heno. 
We shall read your book this evening. 

2. The same Inflected Form is used in Welsh for the 
Present and Future Tenses. 

The Future Compound Form is also used in the 
Present Tense to show Habit or Custom. The Tense 
of the Verb, whether Present or Future, can generally 
be known from other words in the sentence. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 33 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. -af -wn 

2. -i -wch 

3. -a -ant 

(or no ending). 

Med-i, to reap. med-, stem. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Med-af (fi), I shall reap. 

2. Med-i (di), thou wilt reap. 

3. Med, or Med-a (ef), he will reap. 
Med, or Med-a (hi), she will reap. 

, PLURAL. 

1. Med-wn (ni), we shall reap. 

2. Med-wch (chwi),you will reap. 

3. Med-ant (hwy), they will reap. 

(J) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Byddaf (fi) yn gofyn, I shall be asking, I shall ask. 

2. Byddi (di) yn gofyn, thou wilt be asking, thou wilt ask. 

3. Bydd (ef ) yn gofyn, he will be asking, he will ask. 
Bydd (hi) yn gofyn, she will be asking, she will ask. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Byddwn (ni) yn gofyn, we shall be asking, we shall ask. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) yn gofyn, you will be asking, you will ask. 

3. Byddant (hwy) yn gofyn, they will be asking, they will 

ask. 
c 



34 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



VOCABULARY. 


MEANING. 


INFINITIVE VERB. 


STEM. 


to tell, to say 
to take 
to seek, to try 
to hide 


dywed-yd 
cymer-yd 
ceis-io 
cudd-io 


dywed- 
cymer- 
ceisi- 
cuddi- 


to fail 
to draw, to pull 
to ask, to enquire 


meth-u 
tyn-u 
gofyn 


meth- 
tyn- 
gofyn- 



EXERCISE 9- 

i. Fe ddysg y bachgen y wers. 2. Dywedaf yr hanes. 
3. Fe dyn y ceffyl y cerbyd i'r dref. 4. Mi a gymeraf y 
llyfr yn fy Haw. 5. Ceisiant agor y drws. 6. Methant 
arwain y plant. 7. Gofynaf am afal. 8. Agorant y drws. 

Translate the following sentences by the Inflected 
Form. 

i. We shall win the prize. 2. We shall try to win the 
prize. 3. The girl will learn the lesson. 4. I will hide 
the book in the house. 5. They will tell the story. 

6. We shall sell the cow for ten pounds. 

Translate the following sentences by the Compound 
Form. 

i. I shall be taking the horse to the fair to-morrow. 
2. We shall read the book to-night. 3. She will hide the 
book in the field. 4. We shall try to win the prize. 
5. They will read the letter. 6. He will say the story. 

7. They will be asking for an apple. 



. GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 35 



LESSON 10. 

FUTURE TENSE. (Continued). 
Gwneud, Gael. 

1. The Future Tense is also expressed by the Future 
Korm of Gwneud, to do, followed by the Verb in the 
Infinitive. 

2. The initial letter of the Infinitive Verb, if mutable, 
is changed into the Middle Form. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Gwnaf (fi) ddysgu, I will learn. 

2. Gwnei (di) ddysg-u, thou wilt learn, 

3. Gwna (ef). ddysg-u, he will learn. 
Gwna (hi) ddysg-u, she will learn. 

PLURAL. 

1. Gwnawn (ni) ddysgoi, we will learn. 

2. Gwnewch (chwi) ddysg-u, you will learn. 

3. Gwnant (hwy) ddysg-u, they will learn. 

In the 3rd Person Singular, gwnaiff is sometimes 
used for gwna. 

INTERROGATIVE. 

SINGULAR. 

1. A wnaf fi ddysgn? Gwnaf, will I learn f I will. 

2. A wnei di ddysgu ? Na wnaf, wilt thou learn t> I will not. 

3. A wna efe ddysg-u ? Gwna, will he learn i> he will. 

A wna hi ddysg-u ? Na wna, will she learn? she will not. 



36 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PLURAL. 

1. A wnawn ni ddysgu? Gwnawn, will we learn? we will. 

2. A wnewch chwi ddysgu? Na wnawn, will you learn P 

we will not. 

3. A wnant hwy ddysgu ? Gwnant, will they learn? they will. 

NEGATIVE. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Ni wnaf fi ddim dysgu, I will not learn. 

2. Ni wnei di ddim dysgu, thou wilt not learn. 

3. Ni wna ef ddim dysgu, he will not learn. 
Ni wna hi ddim dysg-u, she will not learn. 

PLURAL. 

1. Ni wnawn ni ddim dysgu, we will not learn. 

2. Ni wnewch chwi ddim dysgu, you will not learn. 

3. Ni wnant hwy ddim dysgu, they will not learn. 

3. The Future Tense is also expressed by the Future 
Form of Gael, to have, followed by the Verb in the 
Infinitive. 

4. The initial letter of the Verb, if mutable, is changed 
into the Middle Form. 

5. This form expresses permission or compulsion, and is 
to be translated by shall in all persons. 

6. In the Interrogative it may be translated by shall or 
may. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Caf (fi) ddarllen, I shall read. 

2. Cei (di) ddarllen, thou shalt read. 

3. Caiff (ef) ddarllen, he shall read. 
Caiff (hi) ddarllen, she shall read. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH, PART IT 37 



PLURAL. 

1. Cawn (ni) ddarllen, we shall read. 

2. Cewch (chwi) ddarllen, you shall read. 

3. Cant (hwy) ddarllen, they shall read. 

INTERROGATIVE. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . A gaf fi ddechreu ? Caf, shall I begin ? I shall, or yes. 

2. A gei di ddechreu ? Cei, shalt thou begin ? thou shalt. 

3. A gaiff ef ddechreu ? Caiff, shall he begin ? he shall. 
A gaiff hi ddechreu? Na chaiff, shall she begin? she 

shall not. 

PLURAL. 

1. A gawn ni ddechretf? Cewch, shall we begin? you shall. 

2. A gewch chwi ddechreu ? Na chewch, shall you begin i 3 

you shall not. 

3. A gant hwy ddechreu ? Cant, shall they begin? they shall. 

NEGATIVE. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Ni chat fi ddim myned, / shall not (be permitted to) 

g- 

2. Ni chei di ddim myned, thou shalt not go. 

3. Ni chaiff ef ddim myned, he shall not go. 
Ni chaiff hi ddim myned, she shall not go. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Ni chawn ni ddim talu, we shall not (be permitted to] pay. 

2. Ni chewch chwi ddim talu,j/<?# shall not pay. 

3. Ni chant hwy ddim talu, they shall not pay. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



7. The Particle Fe may also be used with Gwneud 
and Gael. 

EXAMPLES. 

Fe wnaf fi ddysgu, / will learn. 
Fe gaiff ef ddarllen, he shall read. 

EXERCISE 10. 

i. A wnewch chwi losgi y papur ? Gwnawn. 2. Cawn 
ddysgu canu yn yr ysg-ol. 3. A gant hwy ddechreu 
darllen ? Cant. 4. Caf glywed y plant yn darllen ac yn 
canu. 5. Gwna ddysgu y wers yn yr ysgol. 6. Fe gaiff 
hi wisgo dillad da. 7. A gaf fi roddi afal i Arthur ? Cei. 
8. Ni wnSnt hwy ddim dysgu y wers. 9. Cewch fyned i 
Abertawe yn yr hat. 10. Cant g-lywed y dyn yn canu. 

Translate the following- sentences by the use 01 the 
proper form of Gwneud. 

i. Will you iearn me lesson? We will. 2 - He will 
not learn to read. 3. I will not sing in school. 4- ^ iM 
you begin to read ? I will. 5. She will not pay. 

Translate the following sentences by the use of the 
proper form of Gael. 

i. May I walk to school ? No, you shall not walk to 
school. 2. Shall we begin to read ? You shall not read. 
3. They shall not write. 4. She shall not pay. 5. He 
shall read and she shall write. 6. You shall not go to 
Abergele. 7. He shall not answer. 8. They shall go. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 39 

LESSON n. 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

i. The Future Perfect shows that an action will be 
completed at some future time, or before some other 
action has taken place, as, 

Byddaf wedi darllen y llythyr cyn saith o'r gloch, 

I shall have read the letter before seven o' clock. 

Here, the action, byddaf wedi darllen, / shall have 
read, will be completed before the time mentioned, saith 
o'r gloch, seven o clock. 

2. In English the Present and Present Perfect Tenses 
are sometimes used for the Future and Future Perfect 
Tenses, as, 

(a) Your father comes here to-night, ( Daw eich tad yma 

heno. 

Here, comes, Present Tense, is translated by the 
Future daw. 

(3) When I have eaten my dinner, I shall answer the letter. 
Pan y byddaf wedi bwyta fy nghiniaw, mi a 
atebaf y llythyr. 

Here, have eaten, Present Perfect Tense, is translated 
into Welsh by the Future Perfect, byddaf wedi bwyta. 

3. The Inflected Forms of this Tense are used in 
subjoined clauses, as, 

(a) Pan orffeno efe ei giniaw, efe a ddaw gyda chwi. 
When he has finished his dinner he will come with 

you. 
Here, has finished=shall have finished. 



4O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

(3) Ni faddeuwn i'r dyn hyd nes y cyffeso ei fai. 

We shall not forgive the man until he has confessed 

his fault. 
Here, has confessed=shall have confessed. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 

ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. -wyf, or -of -om 

2. -ech, or -ych, or -ot -och 

3. -o -ont 

SINGULAR. 

1. Dysg--wyf, or dysg-of (fi), I shall (or will] have learnt. 

2. Dysg-ech, or dysg-ych, or dysg-ot (di), thou wilt have 

learnt. 

3. Dysg-o (ef ), he will have learnt. 
Dysg-o (hi), she will have learnt. 

PLURAL. 

1. Dysg-om (ni), we shall (or will) have leaint. 

2. Dysg-och (chwi), _^0# will have learnt. 

3. Dysg-ont (hwy), they will have learnt. 

(b) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Byddaf (fi) wedi bwyta, / shall (or will) have eaten. 

2. Byddi (di) wedi bwyta, thou wilt have eaten. 

3. Bydd (ef) wedi bwyta, hi will have eaten. 
Bydd (hi) wedi bwyta, she will have eaten. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Byddwn (ni) wedi bwyta, we shall (or will) have eaten. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) wedi bwyta, you will have eaten. 

3. Byddant (hwy) wedi bwyta, they will have eaten. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 41 

EXERCISE ii. 

I. Byddaf wedi dysgu y wers cyn ydaw eich brawd o'r 
ysgol. 2. Byddant wedi darllen y llyfr cyn tri o'r g\och. 
3. Os bydd Gwilym wedi gorffen y gwaith, efe a ddaw 
gyda chwi. 4. Ni faddeuaf i chwi hyd nes y cyffesoch 
eich bai. 5. Pan y byddwn wedi bwyta ein ciniaw ni a 
ddarllenwn y papur. 6. Ni chewch fyned hyd nes y 
dysgoch y wers. 7. Byddant wedi myned cyn nos. 

1. Olwen will have written the letter before ten o'clock. 

2. You will not forgive the man until he has confessed 
(shall have confessed) his fault. 

3 They will have finished the work before we reach 
the town. 

4. The man will have reaped the field before five 
o'clock. 

5. When he has read the letter he will come with you. 



LESSON 12. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

i. The Subjunctive Mood is so called because it is 
chiefly used in subjoined or subordinate clauses, as, 

Eisteddodd y fam wrth y drws fel y gwelai ei mab, 
The mother sat by the door that she might see her son. 

Here, the clause, fel y gwelai ei mab, is a subordinate 
clause to the principal clause, eisteddodd y fam wrth y 
drws. 



42 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

2. The Subjunctive is also found sometimes in principal 
clauses, as, 

Prynwn y fuwch pe byddai genyf arian, 
/ would buy the cow if I had money. 
Here, the Verbs in both clauses, prynwn and byddai 
are in the Subjunctive Mood. 

3. The Subjunctive Mood is used to express a purpose, 
a condition or a wish. 

(i) A Purpose. 
Mi a roddais y llyfr i chwi fel y darllenech ef. 

I gave you the book that you might read it. 
Ni a safwn yma fel y gwelom ef. 
We shall stand here that we may see him. 

(2) A Condition. 
Mi a werthwn y ty pe prynai rhywun ef. 

/ would sell the house if any one would buy it. 

(3) A Wish. 

Buan y cly wont oddi with eu tad I 
May they hear soon from their father ! 
O na bawn yn seren fach dlos ! 
Would that I were a pretty little star I 
Duw gadwo'r Brenin. 
(May) God save the King. 

4. The Subjunctive Mood has no forms of its own, but 
uses those of the Indicative. 

In Subordinate Clauses the Subjunctive Mood is pre- 
ceded by pe, ped, if, fel y, that, and other Conjunctions. 
Pe is used before consonants, ped before vowels. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 43 

5. In Negative Sentences these Conjunctions are 
followed by na, nad, not. 

Na is used before Verbs beginning" with a consonant, 
and nad before Verbs beginning with a vowel. 

When the Verb follows na, its initial letter is 
changed in the same way as when following ni. 
Mutable consonants of the First Class, c, p, t, are 
changed into the Aspirate Form, ch, ph, th. Mutable 
consonants of the Second and Third Classes, g, b, d, 
and 11, m, rh, are changed into the Middle Form, 
, f, dd, and 1, f, r. 

EXAMPLES. 

Na. 

Fel na chollom, that we may not lost ; colli, to lose. 
Fel na thalai, that he might not pay ; talu, to pay. 
Pe na ddysgech, if you would not learn ; dysgu, to learn. 
Fel na roddent, that they might not give ; rhoddi to give. 

Nad. 

Fel nad ofnoch, that you may not fear ; ofni, to fear. 
Fel nad arosent, that they might not stay ; aros, to stay. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
Same as the Future Perfect, Indicative Mood. 

6. This Tense is translated into English by means of 
the Auxiliaries may or should. 

( that I may see. 
Fel y gwelwyf < 

. . | that I should see. 



44 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Fel y gwelwyf (fi), that I may see. 

2. Fel y gwelech, gwelych (di), that thou mayest see. 

3. Fel y gwelo (ef), that he may see. 
Fel y gwelo (hi), that she may see. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Fel y gwelom (ni), that we may see. 

2. Fel y gweloch (chwi), that you may see. 

3. Fel y gwelont (hwy), that they may see. 

(V) COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

that I may hear. 



Fel y byddo i mi glywed 

that I should hear. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Fel y byddo i mi glywed, that I may hear. 

2. Fel y byddo i ti glywed, that thou mayest hear. 

3. Fel y byddo iddo glywed, that he may hear. 
Fel y byddo iddi glywed, that she may hear. 

PLURAL. 

1 . Fel y byddo i ni glywed, that we may hear. 

2. Fel y byddo i chwi glywed, that you may hear. 

3. Fel y byddo iddynt glywed, that they may hear. 

7. As there is no change in the termination of the 
Finite Verb to show Person, this Form is said to be 

Impersonal. 

The Person is shown by the Personal Pronoun, which 

is in the Objective Case governed by the Preposition 

preceding it. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 45 

8. Fel y byddo i mi glywed, translated word for 
word is, that it may be to me to hear=that I may hear, 

9. The initial letter of the Infinitive Verb, if mutable, 
is changed into the Middle Form, as, clywed, glywed. 

EXERCISE 12. 
i. Mi a roddaf y llyfr i chwi, fel y darllenoch ef. 

2. Ni a eisteddwn wrth y drws, fel y gwelom eich brawd. 

3, Hwy a fyddant yn ofalus, fel na chollont yr arian. 
4 Mi a fyddaf gyda chwi, fel nad ofnoch. 5. Ni a 
gerddwn i'r dref, fel y byddo i ni glywed y dyn yn canu. 

1. The boy is very careful, that he may not lose his 
money. 

2. They will stay in school, that they may learn the 
lesson. 

3. They sit by the door, that they may see the children. 

4. We shall buy the paper, that we may read it. 

5. They will walk to the town that they may see your 
brother. 



LESSON 13. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Continued. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 
Same as the Imperfect, Indicative Mood. 

f that I might see. 

Fel y gwelwn < that I should see. 

\ that 1 would see. 



46 A GUIDE TO WELSH PART II. 

f if I saw, 

Pe gwe f wn '. if I were to see. 
V. if I should see. 

( O that I saw. 
O na welwn 7 . 

\ would that I saw. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 
Auxiliaries, might, would, should. 

SINGULAR. 

I. Fel y rhoddwn (i), that I might give. 
2. Fel y rhoddit (ti), that thou mightest give. 
3. Fel y rhoddai (ef ), that he might give. 
Fel y rhoddai (hi), that she might give. 

PLURAL. 

1. Fel y rhoddem (ni), that we might give. 

2. Fel y rhoddech (chwi), that you might give. 

3. Fel y rhoddent (hwy), that they might give. 

(b) COMPOUND FORM. 
If I were to sell, if I sold. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Pe byddwn (i) yn gwerthu, if I were to sell. 

2. Pe byddit (ti) yn gwerthu, if thou wert to sell. 

3. Pe byddai (ef) yn gwerthu, if he were to sell. 
Pe byddai (hi) yn gwerthu, if she were to sell. 

PLURAL. 

1. Pe byddem (ni) yn gwerthu, if we were to sell. 

2. Pe byddech (chwi) yn g-werthu, if you were to sell. 

3. Pe byddent (hwy) yn gwerthu, if they were to sell 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 47 

CONTRACTED FORM OF BYDDWN. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . bawn baem 

2. bait baech 

3. bai baent 

(0 COMPOUND FORM (CONTRACTED). 
If I were to sell, if I sold. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 , Pe bawn (i) yn gwerthu. Pe baem (ni) yn gwerthu. 

2, Pe bait (ti) yn gwerthu. Pe baech (chwi) yn gwerthu. 

3, Pe bai (ef) yn gwerthu. Pe baent (hwy) yn gwerthu. 

(d) COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 
That I would, should, might learn ; If I learnt. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Pe byddai i mi ddysgu. Pe byddai i ni ddysgu. 

2. Pe byddai i ti ddysgu. Pe byddai i chwi ddysgu. 

3. Pe byddai iddo (ef) ddysgu. Pe byddai iddynt ddysgu. 
Pe byddai iddi (hi) ddysgu. 

Byddai is often contracted into bai. 

EXERCISE. Write out the Compound Form Impersonal 
with bai instead of byddai. 



48 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Same as the Pluperfect Indicative in the Inflected 
Form only. 

(a) INFLECTED FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Fed atebaswn (i), if I had answered. 

2. Ped atebasit (ti), if thou hadst answered. 

3. Ped atebasai (ef), if he had answered. 
Ped atebasai (hi), if she had answered. 

PLURAL. 

1. Ped atebasem (ni), if we had answered. 

2. Ped atebasech (chwi), if you had answered. 

3. Ped atebasent (hwy), if they had answered. 

(b) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Pe buaswn (i) yn ateb, if I had answered. 

2. Pe buasai (ti) yn ateb, if thou hadst answered. 

3. Pe buasai (ef) yn ateb, if he had answered, 
Pe buasai (hi) yn ateb, if she had answered. 

PLURAL. 

1. Pe buasem (ni) yn ateb, if we had answered. 

2. Pe buasech (chwi) yn ateb, if you had answered. 

3. Pe buasent (hwy) yn ateb, if they had answered. 

(c) COMPOUND FORM. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Pe buaswn (i) wedi gweithio, if I had worked. 

2. Pe buasit (ti) wedi gweithio, if thou hadst worked. 

3. Pe buasai (ef ) wedi gweithio, if he had worked. 
Pe buasai (hi) wedi gweithio, if she had worked. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 49 

PLURAL. 

1. Pe buasem (ni) wedi gweithio, if we had worked. 

2. Pe buasech (chwi) wedi gweithio, if you had worked. 

3. Pe buasent (hwy) wedi gweithio, if they had worked. 

(d} COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

SINGULAR. 

1. Pe buasai i mi brynu, if I had bought. 

2. Pe buasai i ti brynu, if thou hadst bought. 

3. Pe buasai iddo (ef) brynu, if he had bought. 
Pe buasai iddi (hi) brynu, if she had bought. 

PLURAL. 

1. Pe buasai i ni brynu, if we had bought. 

2. Pe buasai i chwi brynu, if you had bought. 

3. Pe buasai iddynt (hwy) brynu, if they had bought. 

EXERCISE 13- 

1 . Fe roddai eich tad arian i chwi, pe gofynech iddo. 

2. Fe ganwn i chwi, pe byddai i chwi eistedd wrth y drws. 

3. Pe bawn i yn gwerthu y fuwch, a brynech chwi hi ? 
Prynwn, os gwerthech hi am wyth punt. 

4. Ni buaswn i wedi cerdded i'r dref, pe buaswn yn 
gwybod nad oeddech chwi yno. 

5. O na bai Arthur yn fachgen dal 

1. If he sold the black horse, would you buy it ? I 
would, if he would sell it for twenty pounds. 

2. Your mother would give you an apple, if you were 
to ask her. 

3. If she learnt the lesson, her mother would give her 
a book. 



5O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

LESSON 14- 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

1. The Imperative is used to express a command, or 
to make a request. 

Agx>rwch y drws, open the door (a command). 
Cauwch y ffenestr, os gwelwch yn dda, 
Shut the window, if you please (a request). 

2. The Second Person Singular is used chiefly when 
addressing- those equal in age or rank, but it is not so- 
much used as the Second Person Plural. 

Edrych ar y llyfr, look (thou) at the book (Singular). 
Edrychwch ar y llyfr, (you) look at the book (Plural) 

(a) INFLECTED FORM, 
ENDINGS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL, 

1. none -wn 

2. -a (or no ending) -wch 

3. -ed -ant 

cymer-yd, to take, cymer-, stem 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. cymer- wn, let us take. 

2. cymer, fake. cymer-wch, take. 

3. cymer-ed, let him take. cymer-ant, let them take.. 

(6) COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL), 

SINGULAR. 

1. Bydded i mi redeg, let me run; may I run. 

2. Bydded i ti redeg, mayest thou run. 

3. Bydded iddo (ef) redeg, let him run; may he run. 
Bydded iddi (hi) redeg, let her run; may she run* 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. SI 

PLURAL. 

1. Bydded i ni redeg, let us run ; may we run. 

2. Bydded i chwi redeg, may you run. 

3. Bydded iddynt (hwy) redeg, let them run; may they run. 

(c) COMPOUND FORM. 
Gad-ael, to let, to allow ; gad-, stem. 

SINGULAR. 

I. Gad i mi gerdded, let me walk. 
3. Gad iddo (et) gerdded, let him walk. 
Gad iddi (hi) gerdded, let her walk. 

PLURAL. 

i. Gadewch i ni gerdded, let us walk. 
3. Gadewch iddynt (hwy) gerdded, let them walk. 

3. To make an Imperative Sentence Negative, na or 
nac is placed before the Verb. Mutable consonants 
coming after na, change according to the rules given 
in Lesson 12. 5. 

Nac is used before vowels. 

EXAMPLES. 

lladd, to kill; na ladd, kill not, do not kill. 
twyllo, to deceive; na thwylla fi, do not deceive me. 
ofni, to fear; nac ofn\vch,fear not, do not fear. 
nac arwain ni i brofedigaeth, lead us not into 
temptation. 

4. In ordinary conversation the Imperative Form ot 
peidio, to cease, to leave off, is much used to make an 
Imperative Sentence Negative. 

paid, or paid a, do not, don't (Singular). 
peidiwch, or peidiwch a, do not, don't (Plural). 



52 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

5. The a following- paid, peidiwch, governs the 
mutable consonants of the First Class, c, p, t, in the 
Aspirate, ch, ph, th. Mutable consonants of the 
Second and Third Classes coming' after a remain 
unchanged. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Paid a chredu y fath beth, | do not believe stick G 
Paid credu y fath beth, j thing. 

2. Peidiwch a phrynu, do not buy. 

3. Peidiwch a darllen y llythyr, do not read the letter. 

4. Paid a bwyta gormod, do not eat too much. 

5. Paid a dweud wrth neb, do not tell anyone. 

VOCABULARY. 

MEANING. INFINITIVE VERB. STEM. 

to anoint ir-o ir- 

to remember cofi-o cofi- 

to forget anghofi-o anghofi- 

to wash g-olch-i golch- 

to throw tafl-u tafl- 

dwylaw, hands. cyn, before. 

llygad, m. an eye. poeth, hot. 

llygaid, eyes. heno, to-night. 

EXERCISE 14. 

i. Ira dy lygad fel y gwelech. 2. Cofia olchi dy 
ddwylaw cyn bwyta dy giniaw. 3. Golchwch eich dwy- 
law yn y dwfr poeth. 4. Peidiwch ag^ anghofio eich 
gwers. 5. Darllenwch lythyr eich brawd heno. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART IL. S3 

6. Gadewch i mi ddweud un gain 7. Cymerwch y llyfr 
yn eich lla\v, a darllenwch ef. 8. Peidiwch a lladd y 
fuwch, gwerthwch hi. 9. Cofiwch y morwyr. 

i. Let him wash his hands in the hot water. 2. Do 
net throw stones. 3. Remember to learn your lesson 
to-nig-ht. 4. Don't laugh when I am speaking-. 5. Let 
us run to school. 6. Don't forget to wash your hands 
before eating; your dinner. 7- Don't deceive Arthur. 



LESSON 15- 

GALLU. MEDRU. 

1. Gallu means to have the power ; to be able ; to peiinit. 
Medru means to possess the skill ; to have the know- 
ledge ; to know how. 

Gallaf, I have the power; I am able; lean; I may. 

Medraf , I possess the skill ; I know how ; lean. 
This distinction between gallu and medru is not 
always observed, especially in South Wales, where 
gallu is much used. 

2. Gallu and Medru, when finite, govern the initial 
consonants of Verbs coming- after them in the Middle 
Form. 

EXAMPLES. 
Gallaf dalu, / am able to pay, I can pay. 
Gallaf weithio, / am able to work, I can work, 
Medraf nofio, / know how to swim, I can swim. 
Medraf ddarllen a siarad Ffrancaeg, I know how to 
read and to speak French, I can read and speak French. 



54 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART IL 

Gall-u, Gall-, stem. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Gall-af (fi), I am able, I can, I may. 

2. Gell-i (di), thou art able, thou canst, thou mayest. 

3. Gall (ef), he is able, he can, he may. 
Gall (hi), she is able, she can, she may. 

PLURAL. 

1. Gall-wn (ni), we are able, we can, we may. 

2. Gell-wch (chwi), you are able, you can, you may. 

3. Gall-ant (hwy), they are able, they can, they may. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Gall-wn (i), I could. Gall-em (ni). we could. 

2. Gell-it (ti), thou couldesi. Gall-ech (chwi), you could. 

3. Gall-ai (ef), he could. Gall-ent (hwy), they could. 
Gall-ai (hi), she could. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Gallas-wn (i), I could have, I might have 

2. Galles-it (ti), though couldest have, thou mightesi have. 

3. Gallas-ai (ef), he could have, he might have. 
Gallas-ai (hi), she could have, she might have. 

PLURAL. 

1. Gallas-em (ni), we could have, we might have. 

2. Gallas-ech (chwi), you could have, you might have. 

3. Gallas-ent (hwy), they could have, they might have. 
Medru is quite regular. 

EXERCISE 15. 

i. A ellwch chwi orffen y gwaith heno ? Gallwn. 
2. Mi a fedraf ddarllen Cymraeg a Saesneg. 3. A 
fedrwch chwi ddarllen a siarad Cymraeg-? Meclrat. 
4. Dysgais ddarllen a siarad Cymraeg pan oeddwn yn 
yr ysgol yn Aberystwyth. 5. Ni fedraf fi nofio. 6. A 
allech chwi brynu y ty ? Gallem, pe rhoddai eich tad 
arian i ni. 7. A all hi newid swllt ? Gall. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 55 

I. Can you remember the boy's name ? No, I cannot. 
2. He cannot swim. 3. She does not know how to sing. 
4. Could you pay the man to-morrow ? Yes, if I could 
sell the cow for twenty pounds. 5. I cannot walk. 



LESSON 16. 

PRONOUNS WITH VERBS. 

1. A Pronoun, when it is the Object to a Transitive 
Verb, may be placed (i) after the Verb, (2) before the 
Verb, (3) before and after the Verb. 

2. FIRST WAY. When the Verb is finite, the Pronoun 
follows it in the Objective Case, as, 

Gwelaf chwi, / see you. 
Prynais ef, / bought it. 
Clywant hi, They hear her. 
Fe ddysgodd yr athraw ni, 
The teacher taught us. 

In these sentences, the Pronouns chwi, ef, hi, ni, are 

in the Objective Case. 

3. SECOND WAY. When the Verb is preceded by its 
Nominative, or is in the Infinitive Mood, the Pronoun is 
changed into the Possessive Case, and is placed 
before the Verb, as, 

Y mae y dyn yn ein talu, the man is paying us. 

Here, ein is a Pronoun in the. Possessive Case, and is 
translated into English by us, a Pronoun in the Objective 
Case. 



56 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Efe a'm talodd, he paid me. 

Here, 'm is a contraction ot ym, my, and is translated 
by me. 

4. THIRD WAY. If emphasis is to be shown, a Pronoun 
in the Possessive Case is placed before the Verb, and a 
Pronoun in the Objective Case after the Verb, as, 

Y mae y dyn yn ein talu ni, 

The man is paying us (and not paying any other person). 

Here talu has two Pronouns, ein, Possessive Case, 
before it, and ni, Objective Case, after it ; and both are 
translated into English by the one Pronoun us. 

Efe a'm talodd i, he paid me. 

Here, 'm, Possessive, and i, Objective, are translated 
into English by the one Pronoun me, Objective. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS USED WITH VERBS. 

OBJECTIVE CASE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

ist Person, fi, i, me. ni, us. 

2nd di, thee. chwi, you. 

3rd ef, him, it. hwy, hvvynt, nhw, them 

hi, her, it. 

POSSESSIVE CASE. 

ist Person, fy, ym, 'm, my, (me). ein, 'n, our, (us). 
2nd dy, yth, 'th, thy, (thee). eich, 'ch, your, (you). 
3nd ei, 'i, his, its, (him, if). eu, 'u, their, (them). 
ei, 'i, her, its, (her, if). 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 57 

When ei, mas. and fern., and eu, plu. follow i, to, they 
are changed into i'w, as, 

Aeth i'w weled ef, he went to see him. 
Aeth i'w gweled hi, he went to see her. 
Aeth i'w gweled hwy, he went to see them. 

5. The initial consonant of the Verb is governed by 
the Possessive Pronoun which precedes it. Ym, my, 
ein, our, eich, your, eu, their, are followed by the radical 
sound. 

Dy, yth, thy, are followed by the middle sound. 
When the Verb is finite, ei, his, ei, her. govern the radical 
sound. 

When the Verb is in the Infinitive, ei, mas. governs 
the middle sound, and ei, fern, the aspirate. 

Fy, my, governs the nasal sound. 

Table i. 

PRONOUNS WITH THE INFINITIVE VERB. 

Tal-u, to pay. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Yn fy nhalu (i), paying me. Yn ein talu (ni) , paying us. 

2. Yn dy dalu (di), paying thee. Yn eich talu (chwi) , paying you. 

3. Yn ei dalu (ef), paying him. Yn eu talu (hwy), paying them. 
Yn ei thalu (hi), paying her. 

Canmol, to praise. 

1. Yn fy nghanmol (i}, praising me. Yn ein canmol (ni), praising us. 

2. Yn dy ganmol (di) , praising thee. Yn eich canmol (chwi), praising 

you. 

3. Yn ei ganmol (ef), praising him. Yn eu canmol (hwy), praising 
Yn ei chanmol (hi), praising her. them. 

As the Verb does not change in the Plural, the following examples 
are given in the Singular only. 



8 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Parch-u, to respect. Galw, to call. 

1. Yn fy mharcliu (i), respecting me. Yn fy ngalw (i), calling me. 

2. Yn dy barcliu (di), respecting thee. Yu dy alw (di), calling thee. 

3. Yn ei barchu (ef), respecting him. Yn ei alw (ef), calling him. 
Yn ei pharchu (hi) , respecting her. Yn ei galw (hi), calling her. 

Derbyn, to receive. Barn-u, to judge. 

1. Yn fy nerbyn (i), receiving me. Yn fy marnu (i), judging me. 

2. Yn dydderbyn (di), receiving thee. Yn dy faruu (di), judging thee. 

3. Yn ei dderbyn (ef) , receiving him. Yn ei farnu (cf), judging him. 
Yn ei derbyn (hi), receiving her. Yn ei barnu (hi), judging her. 

Llwyth-o, to load. Rhwym-o, to bind. 

1. Yn fy llwytho (i), loading me. Yn fy rhwymo (i), binding me. 

2. Yn dy Iwytho (di), loading thee. Yn dy rwymo (di), binding thee. 

3. Yn ei Iwytho (ef), loading him. Yn ei rwymo (ef), binding him. 
Yn ei llwytho (hi), loading her. Yn ei rhwymo (hi), binding her. 

Table 2. 

PRONOUNS WITH THE FINITE VERB. 
() with Fe. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Fe'm dysgodd (i), he taught me. Fe'n dysgodd (ni), he taught us. 

Fe'th ddysgodd (di), he taught Fe'ch dysgodd (chwi), he taught 

thee. you. 

Fe'i dysgodd (ef), he taught him. Fe'u dysgodd (hwy), he taught 
Fe'i dysgodd (hi), he taught her. them. 

Fe'th welais (di), I saw thee. Fe'ch gwelais (chwi), 1 saw you. 

Fe'i gwelaifi (ef), I saw him. Fe'u gwelais (hwy), I saw them. 
Fe'i gwelais (hi), I saw her. 

(a) With the Nominative before the Verb. 

Mi a'th welais (di), I saw thee. Mi a'ch gwelais (chwi), I saw you. 
Mi a'i gwelais (ef), I saw him. Mi a'u gwelais (hwy), / saiv them. 
Mi a'i gwelais (hi), I saw her. 

Y dyn a'm tarawodd (i), the man struck me. 
Y dyn a'th darawodd (di), the man struck thee. 
Y dyn a'i tarawodd (ef), the man struck him. 
Y dyn a'i tarawodd (hi), the man struck her. 

Y dyn a'n tarawodd (ni) , the man struck us. 

Y dyn a'ch tarawodd (chwi), the man struck yon 

Y dyn a'u tarawodd (hwy), the man struck them. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 59 

EXERCISE 16. 

i. Yr wyf fi yn ei chanmol hi. 2. Nid oedd ef yn fy 
ngalw i. 3. Nid oeddwn yn ei farnu ef. 4. Fe'ch gwelais 
chwi yn cerdded i'r dref. 5. Mi a'i clywais hi yn canu. 
6. Yr oedd eich tad yn ein galw ni bob dydd. 7. Y mae 
y Hong- ar y llyn; yr oedd ef yn ei llwytho a glo. 

i. We have sold it. 2. He was praising me. 3. He 
saw us walking to the village. 4. We heard him. 5. You 
have sold it. 6. My mother was calling him. 7. He has 
taught us to read. 8. She went to the town to see them. 
9. The two ships are on the sea ; he has loaded them 
with coal. 10. The man respects me. 



6O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



LESSON 17. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

1. The Passive Voice in Welsh has two Forms, the 
Inflected Form, and the Compound Form. 

2. The Compound Form is expressed by some Form 
ot the Verb ' Bod, to be, with a Preposition, the Verb 
Cael, a Possessive Pronoun, and the Verb in the 
Infinitive Mood, as, 

Yr wyi wedi cael fy nysgu, / have been taught. 

3. The Inflected Form is expressed by adding certain 
ending's to the stem of the Verb, as, 

Dysgir fi, I am taught. 

4. There is only one ending for each tense. 

5. As these endings do not show either Number or 
Person, the Verbs in the Passive Voice are said to be 
Impersonal, which means that they have no real subject. 

6. In Welsh, both Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 
have a Passive Voice, as, 

Transitive, Passive, Cospwyd ef, he was punished. 
Intransitive, Passive, Rhedwyd, it was run. 

7. Number and Person are expressed by Pronouns, 
which are placed after the Verb, before the Verb, or 
before and after the Verb. 

A sentence may therefore be expressed in Welsh in 
a variety of ways, while in English it is expressed 
generally in one way only. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 6 1 



8. The initial letters of the Pronouns of the 1st and 
2nd Persons Singular are changed into the Middle 
Form, as, 

Dysgir fi, dysgir di, / am taught, thou art taught. 
When the subject is a Noun, no change is made in its 
initial consonant, as, 

Dysgir plant i ganu, Children are taught to sing. 

ENDINGS. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present -ir, gwel-ir, it is seen. 

Imperfect -id, gwel-id, // used to be seen 

Perfect -wyd, gwel-wyd, it was seen. 

Pluperfect -asid, gwel-asid, it had been seen. 

Future -ir, gwel-ir, it will be seen. 

Future Perfect -er, gwel-er, it will be seen 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

-er, dysg-er, let it be tang hi. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present -er, fel y gwel-er, that it may be seen. 
Imperfect -id, fel y gwel-id, that it might be seen. 
Pluperfect -asid, fel y gwel-asid, that it might have 

been seen. 



62 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

ENDING -ir. 
FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Dysg-ir fi, I am taught. Dysg-ir ni, we are taught. 

2. Dysg-ir di, thou art taught. Dysg-ir ch\v\,j/oti are taught. 

3. Dysg-ir ef, he is taught. Dysg-ir hwy, they are taught. 
Dysg-ir hi, she is taught. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

I am taught, &Y. 

1. Mi a ddysgir. Ni a ddysgir. 

2. Ti a ddysgir. Chwi a ddysgir. 
\. Efe a ddysgir. Hwy a ddysgir. 

Hi a ddysgir. 

THIRD INFLECTED FORM. 

I am taught, &c. 

1. Fe'm dysgir (i). Fe'n dysgir (ni). 

2. Fe'th ddysgir (di). Fe'ch dysgir (chwij 

3. Fe'i dysgir (ef). Fe'u dysgir (.hwy). 
Fe'i dysgir (hi). 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 
/ am punished, I am being punished, &c 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Yr wyf (fi) yn cael fy nghospi 

2. Yr wyt (ti) yn cael dy gospi. 

3. Y mae (ef) yn cael ei gospi. 
Y mae hi yn cael ei chospi. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 6> 

PLURAL. 

1 . Yr ydym (ni) yn cael ein cospi. 

2. Yr ydych (chwi) yn cael eich cospi 

3. Y maent (hwy) yn cael eu cospi. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM 
I am used to be taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Byddaf (fi) yn cael fy nysgu. 

2. Byddi (di) yn cael dy ddysgu. 

3. Bydd (et) yn cael ei ddysg-u. 
Bydd (hi) yn cael ei dysgu. 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddwn (ni) yn cael ein dysgu. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) yn cael eich dysgu 

3. Byddant (hwy) yn cael eu dysgu. 

1HIRD COMPOUND FORM. 

With ys, ydys, Impersonal Forms of Bod. 

/ dm paid, I am being paid &c. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Yr ydys yn fy nhalu (i). 

2. Yr ydys yn dy dalu (di). 

3. Yr ydys yn ei dalu (ef). 
Yr ydys yn ei thalu (hi). 

PLURAL. 

1. Yr ydys yn ein talu (ni). 

2. Yr ydys yn eich talu (chwi). 

3. Yr ydys yn eu talu (hwy). 



64 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



FOURTH COMPOUND FORM. 

With byddir or byddys, Impersonal Forms of Bod. 

/ am used to be praised, &V. 

SINGULAR. 

I. Byddir or Byddys yn fy nghanmol (i). 
2 Byddir or Byddys yn dy ganmol (di). 
3. Byddir or Byddys yn ei g-anmol (ef). 
Byddir or Byddys yn ei chanmol (hi). 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddir or Byddys yn ein canmol (ni). 

2. Byddir or Byddys yn eich canmol (chwi). 

3. Byddir or Byddys yn eu canmol (hwy). 

EXERCISE 17. 

I. Fe gospir y bachgen pan y mae et yn ddrxvg. 
2. Fe'm dysgir i gan yr athraw. 3. Fe welir y dyn yn 
cerdded i'r dref bob dydd. 4. Dysgir ni i ddarllen ac i 
siarad Saesneg. 5. Yr ydys yn fy nhalu am weithio. 
6. Byddys yn ei chanmol pan y mae hi yn dysgu ei 
gwers. 7. Byddant yn cael eu talu am fedi. 

Translate each sentence according to the three 
Inflected Forms and according to the Compound Forms. 

1. You are taught by the teacher. 

2. He is punished when he is naughty 

3. We are praised every day. 

4. The paper is burnt. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 65 

LESSON 18. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

ENDING -id. 

FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 
/ used to be taught ; I was taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . Dysg-id fi. Dysg-id ni. 

2. Dysg-id di. Dysg-id chwi. 

3. Dysg-id ef. Dysg-id hwy. 
Dysg-id hi. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

/ used to be taught ; I was taught, &c. 

1. Mi a ddysgid. Ni a ddysgid. 

2. Ti a ddysgid. Chwi a ddysgid. 

3. Efe a ddysgid. Hwy a ddysgid 
Hi a ddysgid. 

THIRD INFLECTED FORM. 

1. Fe'm dysgid (i). Fe'n dysgid (ni). 

2. Fe'th ddysgid (di). Fe'ch dysgid (chwi). 

3. Fe'i dysgid (ef). Fe'u dysgid (hwy). 
Fe'i dysgid (hi). 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 
/ was taught, I was being taught, &c. 
. Yr oeddwn (i) yn cael fy nysgu, &c. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

/ used to be praised, &c. 
. Byddwn (i) yn cael fy nghanmol, &c. 



66 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

THIRD COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

I was taught ; I was being taught, &V. 
I. Yr oeddid yn fy nysgn (i), &c. 

FOURTH COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

/ used to be praised, &c. 
I. Byddid yn fy nghanmol (i), &c. 

PERFECT TENSE. 
(a) PERFECT INDEFINITE (AORIST). 

ENDING -wyd. 
FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 

/ was led, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Arweiniwyd fi. Arweiniwyd ni. 

2. Arweiniwyd di. Arweiniwyd chwi. 

3. Arweiniwyd ef. Arweiniwyd hwy. 
Arweiniwyd hi. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 
/ was seen, &c. 

1. Mi a welwyd. Ni a welwyd. 

2. Ti a welwyd. Chwi a welwyd. 

3. Efe a welwyd. Hwy a welwyd 
Hi a welwyd. 

THIRD INFLECTED FORM. 
/ was beaten, &c. 

1. Fe'm curwyd (i). Fe'n curwyd (ni). 

2. Fe'th gurwyd (di). Fe'ch curwyd (chwi). 

3. Fe'i curwyd (ef). Fe'u curwyd (hwy). 
Fe'i curwyd (hi). 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 67 

(b) PERFECT DEFINITE. 
FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 

/ have been taught, &c. 
i. Yr wyf (fi) wedi cael fy nysgu, &c. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

Without Cael. 
/ have been taught, &V. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Yr wyf (fi) wedi fy nysg-u. Yr ym (ni) wedi ein dysgu. 

2. Yr vvyt (ti) wedi dy ddysgu. Yr ych (chwi) wedi eich 

dysgu. 

3. Y mae (ef) wedi ei ddysgu. Y maent (hwy) wedi eu 
Y mae (hi) wedi ei dysgu. dysgu. 

THIRD COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

/ have been praised, &c. 
I. Yr ydys wedi fy nghanmol (i), &c. 

FOURTH COMPOUND FORM. 

With Finite Forms of Cael. 
/ was taught ; I have been taught, &c, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Cefais (.i) fy nysgu. Cawsom (ni) ein dysgu. 

2. Cefaist (ti) dy ddysgu. Cawsoch (chwi) eich dysgu. 

3. Cafodd (et) ei ddysgu. Cawsant (hwy) eu dysgu. 
Cafodd (hi) ei dysgu. 



68 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

This Form may be varied in two ways ; 

(a) by putting- the Nominative Pronoun before the 
Verb, 

1. Mi a gefais fy nysgu. Ni a gawsom ein dysgu. 

2. Ti a gefaist dy ddysgu. Chwi a gawsoch eich dysgu. 

3. Efe a gafodd ei ddysgu. Hwy a g-awsant eu dysgu. 
Hi a gafodd ei dysgu. 

(b) by putting Fe before the Verb. 

1. Fe gefais (i) fy nysgu. Fe gawsom (ni) ein dysgu. 

2. Fe gefaist (ti) dy ddysgu. Fe gawsoch (chwi) eich 

dysgu. 

3. Fe gafodd (ef) ei ddysgu. Fe gawsant (hwy) eu dysgu. 

Fe gafodd (hi) ei dysgu. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

ENDING -asid. 
FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 
/ had been (aught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Dysg-asid fi. Dysg-asid ni. 

2. Dysg-asid di. Dysg-asid chwi. 

3. Dysg-asid ef. Dysg--asid hwy. 
Dysg-asid hi. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

/ had been tartght, &c. 
i. Mi a ddysgasid, &c. 

THIRD INFLECTED FORM. 

/ had been taught, &fc. 
I. Fe'm dysgasid, &c. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 69 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 

/ had been paid, &V. 
I. Yr oeddwn (i) wedi cael fy nhalu, &c. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

Without Cael. 
/ had been paid, &c. 
i. Yr oeddwn (i) wedi fy nhalu, &c. 

THIRD COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

/ had been praised, &V. 
i. Yr oeddid wedi fy nghanmol (i), &c. 

EXERCISE 1 8. 

i. Dysgid ni i ganu yn yr ysgol. 2. Canmolwyd 
Arthur am ddysgu ei wers. 3. Cefais fy nghanmol am 
ddarllen y llythyr. 4. Cawsoch eich talu am weithio. 
5. Fe'i gwelwyd hi yn cerdded i'r dref. 6. Prynwyd y 
ceffyl am ugain punt. 7. Agorwyd y ffenestr. 

I. He was praised by the teacher. 2. I had been paid 
for working. 3. The cow was sold for ten pounds. 
4. She has been taught to sing. 5. He was punished for 
talking in school. 6. She was praised for writing a 
letter. 7. We were paid for singing. 8. The money 
was lost in the night; it was found yesterday in the field. 



7O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

LESSON 19. 

FUTURE TENSE. 
ENDING -ir. 

The Inflected Forms are the same as those of the 
Present Tense. See Lesson 17. 

The Second Compound Form of the Present Tense is 
also used as a Future Compound Form. See Lesson 17. 

FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 
/ shall or will be seen, &c. 

Gwelir fi, di, ef, hi. 
Gwelir ni, chwi, hwy. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

I shall or will be seen, &V.. 

Mi a welir, ti , efe , hi . 
Ni a welir, chwi , hwy . 

THIRD INFLECTED FORM. 
/ shall or will be seen, &V. 

Fe'm gwelir (i), fe'th welir (di), fe'i gwelir (ef). 

Fe'n gwelir (ni), fe'ch gwelir (chwi), fe'u gwelir (hwy) 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 

/ shall or will be ptaised, &c. 
Byddaf (fi) yn cael ty nghanmol, &c. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

With Finite Forms of Gael. 

/ shall be praised, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Caf (fi) fy nghanmol. Cawn (ni) ein canmol. 

2. Cei (di) dy ganmol. Cevvch (chwi) eich canmol. 

3. Caiff (ef) ei ganmol. Cint (hwy) eu canmol. 
Caiff (hi) ei chanmol. 

This Form may be varied in two ways. 

First Way, by putting- the Nominative Pronoun before 
the Verb. 

Second Way, by putting" Fe before the Verb. 

FIRST WAY. 

1. Mi a gaf fy ng-hanmol. Ni a gawn ein canmol. 

2. Ti a gei dy ganmol. Chwi a gewch eich canmol. 

3. Efe a gaiff ei ganmol. Hwy a gant eu canmol. 
Hi a gaiff ei chanmol. 

SECOND WAY. 

1. Fe gaf (fi) fy nghanmol. Fe gawn (ni) ein canmol. 

2. Fe gei (di) dy ganmol. Fe gewch (chwi) eich 

canmol. 

3. Fe gaiff (ef ) ei ganmol. Fe gant (hwy) eu canmol. 
Fe gaiff (hi) ei chanmol. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 

ENDING -er. 

INFLECTED FORM (!N SUBJOINED CLAUSES). 
/ shall or will have been taught, &V. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Dysger fi. Dysger ni. 

2. Dysg-er di. Dysger chwi. 

3. Dysger ef. Dysger hvvy. 
Dysger hi. 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 

With Gael. 
/ shall or will have been taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Byddaf (fi) wedi cael fy nysgu. 

2. Byddi (di) wedi cael dy ddysgu. 

3. Bydd (ef) wedi cael ei ddysgu. 
Bydd (hi) wedi cael ei dysgu. 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddwn (ni) wedi cael ein dysgu. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) wedi cael eich dysgu. 

3. Byddant (hwy) wedi cael eu dysgu. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

Without Cael. 

/ shall or will have been taught. 
SINGULAR. 

1. Byddaf (fi) wedi fy nysgu. 

2. Byddi (di) wedi dy ddysgu. 

3. Bydd (et) wedi ei ddysgu. 
Bydd (hi) wedi ei dysgu. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 73 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddwn (ni) wedi ein dysgu. 

2. Byddwch (chwi) wedi eich dysgu. 

3. Byddant (hwy) wedi eu dysgu. 

THIRD COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 
/ shall or will have been taught. 

SINGULAR. 

1 . Byddir (or byddys) wedi fy nysgu (i). 

2. Byddir (or byddys) wedi dy ddysgu (di). 

3. Byddir (or byddys) wedi ei ddysgu (ef). 
Byddir (or byddys) wedi ei dysgu (hi). 

PLURAL. 

1. Byddir (or byddys) wedi eich dysgu (ni) 

2. Byddir (or byddys) wedi eich dysgu (chwi) 

3. Byddir (or byddys) wedi eu dysgu (hwy). 

EXERCISE 19. 

i. Fe werthir y fuwch yn y ffair nesaf. 2. Fe gawn ni 
ein canmol gan yr athraw am ddysgu y wers. 3. Cant 
hwy eu dysgu i siarad Ffrancaeg. 4. Pan orffener y 
gwaith, fe gant eu talu. 5. Cant eu canmol am eu gwaith. 

i. The black horse will be sold next week. 2. They 
shall be praised by the teacher. 3. When the work is 
finished (=shall have been finished) we shall be paid. 
4. They shall be taught to speak Welsh. 5. They shall 
not be paid ; the work was not good. 



74 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



LESSON 20. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

The Inflected Form is the same as that of the Future 
Perfect, Indicative Mood. 

(a) FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 
That I may be taught, that I should be taught* 

SINGULAR. fel y dysger fi, di, ef, hi ; 
PLURAL. fel y dysger ni, chwi, hwy. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

With Possessive Pronouns. 
That I may be taught, that I should be taught 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Fel y'm dysger (i). Fel y'n dysger (ni). 

2. Fel y'th ddysger (di). Fel y'ch dysger (chwi). 

3. Fel y'i (<?rei) dysger (ef). Fel y'u (or eu) dysger (hwy). 
Fel y'i (or ei) dysger (hi). 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 
That I may be taught, that I should be taught, &V. 

SINGULAR. 

1. Fel y byddo i mi gael fy nysgu. 

2. Fel y byddo i ti gael dy ddysgu. 

3. Fel y byddo iddo (ef ) gael ei ddysgu. 
Fel y byddo iddi (hi) gael ei dysgu. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 75 

PLURAL. 

1. Fel y byddo i ni gael ein dysgu. 

2. Fel y byddo i chwi gael eich dysgu. 

3. Fel y byddo iddynt hwy gael eu dysgu. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

Inflected Form of Gael. 
That I may be taught, that I should be taught, &"c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Fel y Fel y 

i. caffwyf (fi) fy nysgu. caffom (ni) ein dysgu. 

2 ceffych (dij dy ddysgu. caffoch (chwi) eich dysgu. 

3. caffo (ef) ei ddysgu. caffont (hwy) eu dysgu. 

caffo (hi) ei dysgu. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

The Inflected Form is the same as that of the Impertect 
Indicative. 

FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 

That I would be taught, that I should be tatight, 
that I might be taught &c. 

SINGULAR. fel y dysgid fi, di, ef, hi. 
PLURAL. fel y dysgid ni, chwi, hwy. 

If I were tatight, &c. 

SINGULAR. Pe dysgid fi, di, ef, hi. 
PLURAL. Pe dysgid ni, --chwi, hwy. 



76 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

With Possessive Pronouns. 

That I would be taught, that I should be taught, 

that I might be taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Fel y'm dysgid (i). Fel y'n dysg-id (ni). 

2. Fel y'th ddysgid (di). Fel y'ch dysg-id (chwi). 

3. Fely'i (or ei) dysgid (ef). Fel y'u (or eu) dysgid 
Fel y'i (orei) dysgid (hi). (hwy). 

INFLECTED FORM. 

With Possessive Pronouns. 

If I were taught, &V. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Pe'm dysgid (i). Pe'n dysgid (ni). 

2. Pe'th ddysgid (di). Pe'ch dysgid (chwi). 

3. Pe'i dysgid (ef). Pe'u dysgid (hwy). 
Pe'i dysgid (hi). 

MRST COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

That I should be taught, that I would be taught, that 2 

might be taught, If I were taught, &c. 

fel y, that ; pe, if. 

SINGULAR. 
Fel y byddai, pe byddai 

1. i mi gael fy nysgu. 

2. i ti gael dy ddysgu. 

3. iddo (ef) gael ei ddysgu. 
iddi (hi) gael ei dysgu. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 77 

PLURAL. 

Fel y byddai, pe byddai 

1. i ni gael ein dysgu. 

2. i chwi gael eich dysgu. 

3. iddynt Chwy) gael eu dysgu. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 
With Inflected Form of Gael. 

That I would be taught, &c., that I might be taught, &c. t 
If I were taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

fel y, pe fel y, pe 

1. cawn (i) fy nysgu. caem (ni) ein dysgu. 

2. cait (ti) dy ddysgu. caech (chwi) eich dysgu. 

3. cai (ef) ei ddysgu. caent (hwy) eu dysgu. 
,, cai (hi) ei dysgu. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

The Inflected Form is the same as that of the 
Pluperfect Indicative. 

FIRST INFLECTED FORM. 

That I should, would, or might have been taught, &c. 
SINGULAR. fel y dysgasid fi, di, ef, hi. 
PLURAL. fel y dysgasid ni, chwi, hwy. 

If I had been taught, 6* - . 

SINGULAR. Pe dysgasid fi, di, ef, hi. 
PLURAL. Pe dysgasid ni, - chwi, hwy. 



78 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

SECOND INFLECTED FORM. 

With Possessive Pronouns. 

That I should, would, or might have been taught, 6f., 
If I had been taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

fel y, pe fel y, pe 

1. ,, 'm dysgasid (i). 'n dysgasid ni. 

2. 'th ddysgasid (di). 'ch dysgasid chwi. 

3. 'i dysgasid (ef ). 'u dysgasid hwy. 
'i dysgasid (hi). 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM. 

That I should, would, or might have been taught, &c., 

Ij I had been taught, dfc. 
i. Fel y, pe, buaswn (i) yn cael fy nysgu, &c. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 

That I should, would, or might have been taught, 6<r., 

If I had been taught, &>c. 
i. Fel y, pe, buaswn (i) wedi cael fy nysgu, &c. 

THIRD COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

That 1 should, would, or might have been taught, G 

If I had been taught, &c. 
i . Fel y, pe, buasai i mi gael fy nysgu, &c. 

FOURTH COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 

If I had been taught, &*c. 
i. Pe buasid wedi fy nysgu, &c, 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 79 

FIFTH COMPOUND FORM. 

With the Inflected Form of Gael. 

That I should, ivould, or might have been taught, &>c. t 

If I had been taught, 6<r. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

fel y, pe fel y, pe 

1. cawswn (i) fy nysgu. ,, cawsem (ni) ein dysgu. 

2. cawsit (ti) dy ddysgu. cawsech (chwi) eich dysgu. 

3. ,, cawsai (ef) ei ddysgu. cawsant (hwy) eu dysgu. 
,, cawsai (hi ei dysgu. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

The Inflected Form is the same as that of the Future 
Perfect Indicative, and that of the Present Subjunctive. 

INFLECTED FORM. 

Let me be taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. Dysg-er fi. Dysg-er ni. 

2. Dysg--er di. Dysg-er chwi. 

3. Dysg-er ef. Dysg-er hwy. 
Dysger hi. 

FIRST COMPOUND FORM (IMPERSONAL). 
Let me be taught, may I be taught, &c. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Bydded Bydded 

1. i mi gael fy nysgu. i ni gael ein dysg-u. 

2. i ti gael dy ddysgu. i chwi gael eich dysgu. 
3.,, iddo (ef) gael ei ddysgu. iddynt (hwy) gael eu 

,, iddi (hi) gael ei dysgu. dysgu. 



SO A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

SECOND COMPOUND FORM. 
With Imperative of Qadael, to let, to allow. 

Let me be taught, allow me to be taught. 
Gad or Gadewch Gad or Gadewch* 

i. i mi gael fy nysg-u. i ni gael ein dysgu. 

3. iddo (ef ) gael ei ddysg-u. iddynt (hwy) gael eu 
iddi (hi) gael ei dysg-u. dysgu. 

EXERCISE 20. 

i. Fe ddaw y plant i'r ysgol, fel y byddo iddynt gael 
eu dysgu. 2. Pe cawn i fy nysgu, mi a brynwn lyfr. 

3. Ni a ddysgem y wers pe'n canmolid ni gan yr athraw. 

4. Pe buaswn i wedi cael fy nysgu, buaswn yn medru 
darllen y llyfr Ffrancaeg. 5. Gadewch iddi g-ael ei 
chanmol. 6. Cosper ef. 

i. The children walked to school that they might be 
taught to read and write. 2. They would learn the 
lesson if they were praised by the teacher. 3. We go to 
school that we may be taught to read and write. 4. Let 
him be taught to sing. 5. Let the children be taught to 
speak Welsh. 6. If he had not lost the money he would 
have bought your horse. 7. If I had been taught to 
work, I should not be poor. 8. If she had been paid 
for her work, she would have given money to her mother. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. Si 



To the Teacher. This Lesson may be omitted when 
reading the book for the first time. 

LES5ON 21. 

VOWEL CHANGES IN VERBS. 

1 Verbs which have a in the last syllable of the Stem change Ibf 
a into e in certain tenses. 
These tenses are : 

(1.) Pres. and Fut. Tenses, Sing, and Flu. 2nd person, 

lladd, lleddi, lleddwch, 

to kill. thou killest. you kill. 

can-u, ceni, cenwch, 

to sing. thou singest. you sing. 

car-u, ceri, cerwch, 

to love. thou lovest. you love. 

darpar-u, darperi, darpenvch, 

to prepare. thou preparest. you prepare. 

(2.) Imperfect Tense, Singular, 2nd person. 

lleddit, thciit wust killiny, thou usedst to kill. 
(3.) Perfect (Aorist) Tense, Singular, 1st and 2nd persons, 
lleddais, I killed ; lleddaist, thou didst kill. 
cenais, / sang ; cenaist, thou didst sing. 
(3.) Imperative Mood, Plural, 2nd person, 
lleddwch, kill; cenwch, sing. 
(4 } Passive Voice, Present and Future Tenses, 
lleddir ef, he is killed; cerir fi, / am loved, 

(5). Passive Voice, Imperfect Tense, 
cerid fi, / used to be loved. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE TEXSES. 

2. When the last syllable of the stem contains o this vowel ia 
changed into y to form the 3rd person Singular of the Present and 
Future Tenses. 

coll-i, to lose; cyll, he will lose. 

rhodd-i, to give; rhydd, he will give. 
llosg-i, to burn llysg, he will burn 
F dodi, to put; dyd, he will put. 



82 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

3. When the stem has more than one syllable, the vowel o or e or 
a in the last syllable is changed into y, and a or o in the last 
syllable but one is changed into e. 

aros, to wait ; eryp, he will icait. 
ateb, to answer ; etyb, he will answer. 
dangos, to show, dengys, he will show. 
gwrando, to listen ; gwrendy, he will listen. 
gosod, to place; gesyd, he will place. 
taro, to strike; tery, he will strike. 
para, to last; pery, he will last. 

REFLECTIVE VERES. 

4. A Reflective Verb shows that an action is done by the agent to 
himself. 

5. It is formed by putting the prefix ym before a Transitive Verb. 
The initial letter of the Verb following ym, if mutable, is 

changed into the Middle Form. 

golch-i, ymolch-i, ymolchaf, 

to wash. to wash one 1 s self . I will wash myself . 

cuddi-o, ymguddi-o, ymguddiais, 

to hide. to hide one' s self. I hid myself . 

EXERCISE 21. 

1. Aleddaist ti y ddafad ? Do, fe'i lleddais hi neithiwr. 2. Cenais 
yn yr ysgol. 3. Cerwch eich tad a'ch mam. 4. A leddir y fuwch 
yfory? Lleddir. 5. Fe'm cerir i gan y plant. 6. Pwy a ddengys 
i mi y ffordd? 7. Fe wrendy y Aim j>an y mae y plane yn cairu. 
8. Ni phery yr ystorm yu Mr. 9. Efe a'n gwrendy. 

1. I killed the cow. 2. Love the children. 3 Who will show 
us the house? 4. She is loved by the children. 5. I hid myself 
when I saw the lion. 6. He washed himself in the morning. 7. He 
will show me the way. 8. She will listen when her mother is 
speaking. 9. Prepare the food, the children are coming. 10. H> 
will lose his life. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 83 

LESSON 22. 

THE PRONOUN. 

1. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun ; as, 
Aeth Megan i'r ysgol ; y mae hi yn wyth mlwydd oed, 
Megan went to school ; she is eight years old. 

Here, hi, she, is used instead of the Noun Megan. 

2. There are five kinds of Pronouns, Personal, Demonstrative, 
Indefinite, Interrogative and Relative. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

3. Personal Pronouns are of four kinds. 

(a) SIMPLE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. mi, fi, i, 1, me. ni, we, us. 

2. ti, di, thi, thou, thee. chwi, you. 

3. ef, fe, e, (mas.} he, him, it. hwy, hwynt, nhw, nhwy, 
hi, (fern.) she, her, it. they, them. 

(b) EMPHATIC. 

1. myfi, I, me. nyni, we, us. 

2. tydi, thou, thee. chwychwi, you. 

3. efe, (mas.} he, him. hwynt-hwy, they, them. 
hyhi, (fern.) she, her. 

(c~) CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. minau, finau, inau, ninau, we also, us also. 
I also, me also. 

2. tithau, dithau, thithau, chwithau, you also, 
thou also, thee also. 

3. yntau, (mas.} he also, him also, hwythau, hwyntau, 
hithau, (fern.) she also, nhwthau, nhwythau 

her also. they also, them also. 

(d) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. fy, ym, 'm, my. ein, 'n, our. 

2. dy, yth, 'th, thy. eich, 'ch, your. 

3. ei, 'i, his, her, its. eu, 'u their. 



84 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Ei and eu coming after i, (prep.) to, are changed into i'w; 
I' w dad, to hit father; i'w thad, to her father; i'w tad, to their father. 

REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS. 

4. Reflective Pronouns axe formed by adding hun or hunan, self, 
to the Possessive Pronouns. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. fy hun, fy hunan, myself. ein hunain, ourselves. 

2. dy hun, dy hunan, thyself. eich hunain, yourselves. 

3. ei hun, ei hunan, himself. eu hunain, themselves. 
ei hun, ei hunan, herself. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. The Demonstrative Pronoun points to some person or thing ; 
as, Cymerwch hwn, take this. 

2. When a Demonstrative is used alone in a sentence, it is a 
Pronoun; when it is used with a Noun, it is an Adjective; as, 
y dyn hwn, this man. 

3. Hwn, this, (quite near to the speaker). 
Hwna, that, (yonder in sight of the speaker). 
Hwnw, that, (out of sight of the speaker). 

4. Hyn, this, hyna, that there, hyny, thai out of sight, refer to 
some fact or statement understood by the person addressed ; as, 

Dywedais hyn, I said this. 

Y mae hyny yn rhyf edd, that is wonderful. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

mas. hwn, this. j rhai hyn, these, 

fern, hon, this. j rhai hyn, these. 

hyn, this. hyn, these. 

mas. hwna, that yonder. y rhai yna, those yonder, 

fern, hona, that yonder. y rhai yna, those yonder 

hyna, that. hyna, those. 

mas. hwnw, that. y rhai hyny, those. 

fern, hono, that. j rhai hyny, those. 

hyny, that. hyny, those. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 85 

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

USED WITH NOUNS. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

mas. hwn, this. hyn, these, 

fern, hon, this. hyn, these, 

mas. hwnw, that. hyny, those. 

fern, hono, that. hyny, those. 

5. The Adverbs, yma, here, yna, there, acw, yonder, are often 
used, with Nouns as Demonstrative Adjectives ; as, y llyfr yma, 
this book (near me} ; y llyfr yna, that book (near you} ; y llyfr acw, 
that book (yonder}. 

6. These Adverbs are also used with hwn, &c., to form 
Compound Demonstrative. Pronouns. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

hwn yma, this one (here}. y rhai yma, these (here). 

hwu yna, that one (there}. y rhai yna, those (there). 

hwn acw, that one (yonder}. y rhai acw, those (yonder}. 

The Compounds of hon, hyn. are formed in the same way. 

7. The Adverbs, dyma, dyna, dacw, are often used as 
Demonstrative Pronouns ; as, 

Dyma'r ceffyl,=ihwn yw y ceffyl, this is the horse. 
Dyna'r ty,=hwna yw y ty, that is the house. 
Dacw'r dyu, yonder is the man. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

1. An Indefinite Pronoun is used in a general way and does not 
stand for the name of any particular person or thing. 

2. Indefinite Pronouns are of two Muds : 

(a) Those used aloue in a sentence. 

rhyw un, some one. rhyw rai, pi. some. 

y Hall, the other. y lleill, pi. the others. 

pawb, all (persons). neb, some one, no one. 



86 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

(b) Those used with or without Nouns. 
When used with Nouus these words are Adjectives. 

amryw, several. llawer, many, muck. 

arall, other. mwy, more. 

ereill, pi. others. yr oil, all. 

cyfryw, such. rhai, some (number). 

y fath, such. peth, some (quantity). 

cymaint, as many, as much. un, one. 

dim, something, nothing. unrhyw, any, the same. 

gormod, too many, too much, ychydig, few. 

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. 

These words are always used with Nouns or Pronouns, 
ambell, some, few. rhyw, some. 

holl, all, whole. unrhyw, any. 

pob, every. yr uu, each, the same. 

EXEECISE 22. 

1. Efe ei hun a agorodd ydrws. 2. liwn yw y llyfr ; darllenwch 
ef . 3 Y mae hon yn ysgol fawr. 4. Dyma'r ty, a dyna'r eglwys. 
"> Fe gauodd rhyw un y ffenestr neithiwx. 6. A ddarllemvch chwi 
y papur hwn? Na wnaf; mi a ddarllenaf y Hall. 7. Prynais y 
ilyfrau hyn am swllt yr un. 8. Y mae rhai o'r afalau yn ddrwg. 

1. I learnt this when I was at school. 2. This is a large church. 
3. This is the school and that is the chvirch. 4. Some children are 
reading and some are writing. 5. Someone opened the door. 



LESSON 23. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. The Interrogative Pronoun is used in asking a question. 

2. The Interrogatives are pwy and pa. 
Pwy is used alone, and is a Pronoun. 

Pa is used with a Noun or a Pronoun and is an Adjective. 

3. The initial consonant of the word following pwy or pa, if 
mutable, is changed into the Middle Form. 

4. Pwy is translated into English by who, whom, whose. It may 
or may not be followed by the Particle a. 

Pa is translated into English by which or what. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 7 



EXAMPLES. 

Pwy (a) welsoch chwi neithiwr ? Whom did you see last night f 
Dafad pwy a gollwyd ? Whose sheep was lost ? 
Gan bwy y mae yr arian ? Who has the luoitty ? 
Pa wlad yw hon? What country is this ? 
Pa f ath le y w hwn ? What kind of a place is this ? 
Pa beth glywsoch chwi? What did you hear ? 
Pa sawl diwrnod sydd mewn wy tliuos ? 
Hou many days are there in a week ? 

Pa faint o ddefaid oedd yno ? How many sheep were there ? 
Pa faint o wenith hauodd efe ? How much wheat did he sow t 
5. Beth, sawl, faint are often used without pa. 
Pa beth ? or Beth ? What ? 
Pa faint ? or Faint? How many ? How much-? 
Pa sawl ? or Sawl ? How many ? 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. The Relative Pronoun stands instead of a Noun going before it, 
and it also joins one sentence to another; as, 

Gwerthais y ddafad yr hon oedd yn gloff. 
I sold the sheep which was lame. 

Here, yr hon, which, stands for the Xoun dafad, sheep, and also 
it joins the sentence or clause oedd yn gloff to the first sentence 
Qwerthais y ddafad. 

2. Relative Pronouns are of two kinds, Simple and Compound. 

3. The Simple Relative Pronouns are, 

a, used before consonants and vowels, who, whom, which, that. 
ag, used chiefly before sydd and oedd, who, whom, which, that. 
y, before consonants, yr, before vowels and words beginning 
with h, in which, of which, that. 

4. The Compound Relative Pronouns are, 
yr hwn, mas. who, whom., that, he that. 
yr hon, fern, who, whom, that, she that. 

y rhai, pi. who, whom, which, that, they that. 

yr hyn, which, that which, what. 

V neb, y sawl, whosoever, the one who, he that. 



88 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

5. The Compound Relative Pronouns are used to strengthen the 
Simple Eelative Pronouns a, y, yr. 

(a) Collwyd y ddafad a brynwyd yn y ffair. 

(b) Collwyd y ddafad yr hon a brynwyd yn y ffair. 
The sheep, which was bought in the fair, was lost. 

In the second sentence yr hon is used to make the Relative 
Pronoun a stronger. 

6. The Interrogative Pronouns pwy, beth, pa, are used with 
bynag and the Simple Relatives a, y, yr, to form Compound 
Relative Pronouns, which have an indefinite or general meaning. 

pwy bynag a, ivhosoever. 

beth bynag a, whatsoever. 

pa . . (with Noun) . . bynag a, what . .(Noun) . . soever. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Gwelais y dyn a enillodd y wobr, I saw the man who won the prize. 
Gofynwch i unrhyw un ag oedd yno, Ask any one who was there. 

Yn y dydd y bwytei o hono, In the day in which (or that) thou 
eatest of it. 

Y flwyddyn yr aeth yno i fyw, The year in which (or that) he went 
there to live. 

Y mae y dyn yr hwn a welsoch neithiwr wedi ymadael, The 
man whom you saw Isist night has left. 

Rhoddwyd yr arian i'r wraig yr hon oedd yn dlawd, The money 
was given to the woman who was poor. 

Y plant y rhai a glywsom, The children whom we heard. 

Dywedodd wrth ei frawd y r hy n a welsai, He told his brother what 

he had seen. 
Y neb a lafurio ei dir a ddigonir o fara, He that tills his land shall 

be satisfied with bread. 
Y sawl a gloddio bwll a syrth ynddo, He that digs a pit shall fall 

into it. 

Pwy bynag a welir yno, Whosoever is seen there. 
Beth bynag a ddywedodd, Whatsoever he said. 
Pa lyfr bynag a brynai, What book soever he bought. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 89 

EXERCISE 23. 

1. Pwy ddaeth at y drws ? Neb. 2. Pa beth glywsoch chwi yn y 
dref ? Ni chlywais i ddim. 3. Faint o geffylau oedd yn y ffair ? Yr 
oedd yno haner cant. 4. A brynodd eich tad y fuwch ag oedd yn 
glofE ? Do. 5. Dyma'r ci a laddodd y ddafad. 

1. "What is this? I do not know. 2. How many girls were in 
school ? There were sixty there. 3. Have you read the book that 
your father gave you? Yes, I read it when you were playing. 
4. Let me read the letter that your mother wrote. 



LE5SON 24. 

THE ADVERB. 

1. An Adverb is a word that qualifies a Verb, an Adjective, an 
Adverb or a part of a sentence. 

2. In English Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -ly to 
Adjectives, as, wise, wisely; true, truly, $c. In Welsh it cannot 
be known from the form of the word whether it is an Adjective or 
an Adverb. 

Rule. If the word qualifies a Noun or a Pronoun it is an 
Adjective ; if it qualifies a Verb it is an Adverb. 
(a) Y mae Dafydd yn dda, David is good. 
(V) Darllenodd Dafydd yn dda, David read well. 
In the first sentence yn dda is an Adjective because it qualifies 
the Noun Dafydd. 

In the second sentence yn dda is an Adverb because it qualifies 
the Verb darllenodd. 

KINDS OF ADVERBS. 
1. ADVERBS or PLACE. 

acw, yonder, then. ar ben, at an end, finished. 

allan, out. ar ol, behind. 

fry, above. ar bwys, near. 

obry, below. ar wahan, apart. 

draw, yonder. ger llaw, near, at hand. 

isod, below. i fyny, upward, up. 

uchod, above. i lawr, downward, down 

tanodd, underneath. i maes, out. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



trosodd, ot.tr. 
trwodd, through, 
yma, here. 

yna, there (in sight). 
yno, there (out of sight), 
ymaith, away, hence. 



i mewn, within. 

i waered, downward, down. 

oddeutu, about. 

o'r ueilldu, aside. 

yn mlaen, forward, on. 

yn ol, back. 



Oddi is used with some of these Adverbs, as, 

oddi yno, from that place, oddi allan, outside, from without. 
oddi uchod, from above. oddi fewn, from within. 



2. DEMONSTKATIYE ADVERBS. 

dyma, here, (is, are). 
dyna, there, (is, are). 

3. ADVERBS OF TIME. 

beunydd, daily. 
byth, ever (future time). 
erioed, ever (past time) . 
doe, yesterday. 
echdoe, the day before 
yesterday. 



dacw, yonder, (is, are). 
wele, behold. 



newydd, newly, just. 
eleni, this year. 
y llynedd, last year. 
ambell waith, sometimes. 
bob amser, always. 
gyneu, a little u-hile ago. 



echnos, the night before last, gynt, formerly. 



o'r blaen, before. 
yn awr, S.W. now. 
y rwan, N.W. now. 

vn fore ' 1 early. 
yn gynar, ) 

yn union, at once. 

yii wastad, always, continually. 



heddyw, to-day. 
heno, to-night. 
neithiwr, last night. 
yfory, to-morrow. 
trenydd, the day after 

to-morrow. 

tranoeth, on the morrow. 
eisoes, already. 
eto, again. 
ADVEK*S OF NUMBER AND ORDER. 

NUMBER. ORDER. 

unwaith, once. yn gyntaf , first. 

dwy waith, twice. yn ail, secondly. 

tair gwaith, three times. yn ddiweddaf , finally. 
pedair gwaith, four times, yn olaf, lastly. 



5. ADVERBS OF QUANTITY. 
braidd, hardly, almost. 
bron, ntarly, almost. 
priii, digon prin, hardly, scarcely. 



yu agos, nearly, almost. 

i gyd, altogether. 

mwj f wy, more and more. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



EXAMPLES. 

Yr oedd braidd yn ofni myned, He was almost afraid to go. 
Prin y deuant mor bell a hyny, Hardly will they come as far as that. 
Y mae y dyn bron a gorffen ei waith, The man has nearly finished 

his work. 
Nid yw hi yn agos mor ofalus a'i chwaer She is not nearly so 

careful as her sister. 

6. ADVERBS OF NEGATION. 

iii, nid, nis, not. 

na t nad. nas, not, that. .not. 

uac, not. 

7. ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION*. 

do, yes. 
ie, yes. 
o'r goreu, very well. 

8. ADVERBS op INTERROGATION. 

a, (simple Interrogative). 
ai, is it? 

ai ni, ai nid, ai nis, is it not? 
oni, onid, onis, is it not? 
sut, how? 

Q. ADVERBS OF COMPARISON*. 
cyn, as, so, how. 
digon, sufficiently, enough. 
felly, so, in that way, thus. 
fel, as so. 



na ddo, no. 
nage, no. 



purion, very well. 

yn ddiau, undoubtedly. 

yn wir, truly, indeed. 



pa le, lie, ble, where ? 
pa ham, pani, why ? 
pa fodd, pa wedd, how? 
pa bryd, pryd, when? 



( somewhat, fairly, 
' (in some degree. 
hollol, totally, entirely. 
iawn, very. 
lied, partly, fairly. 



llai, less. 

mor, as, so, how. 

nrwy, more 

mwyaf, most. 

po, by how much, the. 

pur, rather, very. 

rhy, too. 

tra, very. 

yn hytrach, rather. 



EXERCISE 24. 

1. A ganodd eich chwaer yn dda neithiwr? Do, ac yr oedd pawb 
a'i clywodd yn ei chanmol. 2. Paham na ddaeth y dyn i'r dref ? 
Xi allaf eich ateb. 3. Ai nid Dafydd a gauodd y ffenestr? Nage; fe 
gauwyd y if enestr gan Arthur. 4. Darllenais y llythyr dair gwaith. 
5. Yr oedd y dyn bron mar\v pan ddaeth ei fab i'r ty. 

1. The work is at an end. 2. Tbe children were out. 3. Come 
in and sit down. 4. She came back. 5. Did he read well? Yes, 
he r?ad well when T hoard him. 6. He paid me last night. 



92 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



LESSON 25. 

THE PREPOSITION. 

1. A Preposition is a word which governs a Noun, a Pronoun, or 
a Verb-noun (a Verb in the Infinitive), and it shows the relation of 
those words to some other word in the sentence ; as, 

Safodd John wrth y drws, John stood by the door. 
Here, wrth, by, governs drws, door, and shows its relation to 
safodd, stood. 

Cefais geiniog am ddysgu yr adnod. 
I received a penny for learning the verse. 

Here, am, for, governs dysgu, and shows its relation to ceiniog. 
2. Prepositions in "Welsh are of three kinds, Simple, Compound, 
and Pronominal. 

(a) SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 

Governing the Radical Form, 
cyn, before. heibio, by, past. 

er, since, from, for. is, below, under. 

er ys, for (time). mewn, in (Indefinite), 

erbyn, against. rhag, before, from. 

gerfydd, by. rhwng, between. 

gwedi, wedi, after, (time), uwch, above, over. 

GOVERNING THE MIDDLE FORM. 

I around, for, i, to, into, for. 

' I on account of. o, out of, from, of. 

ar, on, upon, at. tan, dan, under, until. 

at, to, towards. tros, dros, over, Jor, instead of. 

gan, with, by, from. trwy, drwy, through, by means of. 

heb, without, wrth, by, to. 

(with Verbs) not. hyd, to, unto, as far as. 

GOVERNING THE ASPIRATE FORM. 
Before Consonants. Before Vowels. 

a ag with 

gyd & gyd ag urith, along with. 

tu a tu ag towards. 

GOVERNING THE NASAL FORM, 
yn, in, (definite). 

NOTE. Some writers change yn into ym before words beginning 
with m, and mh, and into yng before words beginning with ng 
and ngh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 93 

ym mysg, in the midst of. ym niha le, in what place. 

yng Ngeiriadur Charles, in Charles's Dictionary. 
yng nghanol j cae in the middle of the fold. 

(6) COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

3. Compound Prepositions consist of two or more words. 

ar gyfer, opposite to. oddi ar, from, off. 

ger Haw i, near, by. oddi tan, under, from under. 

gor uwch, above. oddi wrth, from. 

heb law, beside. tu ag at, towards. 

hyd at, as far as, to. tu blaen i, before. 

o amgylch, about. tu cefn i, behind. 

o ddeutu, about. tu draw i, beyond. 

yu nghyd &, (ag,) together tu ol i, behind, 
with. 

4. Some Compound Prepositions ending with Nouns or Adjectives 
are preceded by Possessive Pronouns. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. ger fy mron (i), before me. ger ein bron (ni), before us. 

2. ger dy fron (di), before thee. ger eich bron (chwi), before you. 

3. ger ei fron (ef), before him. ger eu bron (hwynt), before them. 
ger ei bron (hi), before /ier. 

llu-y is sometimes used lustead of hwynt; 
nr eu hoi hwy, ar eu hoi liwynt, after them. 

ar hyd, along. o blegid ^ ^^ 

ar ol, after, behind. o achos L 

, , C on account of. 
ar draws, across, over. o herwydd) 

er mwyn, for the sake of. yn erbyn, against. 

er gwaethaf, in spite of. yn mhlith | among, 

ger bron, be fore, in the presence of . yn mysg / in the midst of. 

o flaen, before. -, ( back, behind, 

o fewn, within. \ according to. 

(c) PRONOMINAL PREPOSITIONS. 

5. Pronominal Prepositions are so called because they take the 
endings of the Personal Pronouns . 

They are divided into three classes. 

First Class : af. 

SINGULAR. PLCKAL. 

1. at-af , to me. at-om, to u. 

2. at-at, to thee. at-och, to you 

3. at-o, to him. at-ynt, to them. 
at-i, to her. 



94 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

The following are the most common Pronouns of this class. 

arn-af, on trie. oddi arn-af, from upon me. 

dan-af, under me. am danaf , about me. 

hyd at-af, up to me. tuag at-af , towards me. 

Second Class : of. 

1. heb-of, without me. heb-om, without us. 

2. heb-ot, without thee. heb-och, without you. 

3. heb-ddo, without him. heb-ddynt, without them. 
heb-ddi, without her. 

To this class belong rhag-of, before me, and rhyng-of , between me. 
From trwy, through, come 

trw-of, trw-ot, trwy-ddo, trwy-ddi, 

trw-om trw-och, trwy-ddynt. 
From tros, over, for, come 

tros-of, tros-ot, tros-to, tros-ti. 

tros-om, tros-och, tros-tynt. 

The initial letter t of trwof and trosof is often changed into d, 
as drwof , drosof , &c. 

Third Class : yf. 

1. wrth-yf, to me. wrth-ym, to us. 

2. wrth-yt, to thee. wrth-ych, to you. 

3. wrth-o, to him. wrth-ynt, to them. 
wrth-i, to her. 

From gan, with, come 

gen-yf, gen-yt, gan-ddo, gan-ddi. 

gen-ym, gen-ych, gan-ddynt. 

6. The Preposition i, to, with a Personal Pronoun has no change 
except in the Third Person. 

1. i mi, to me. i ni, to us. 

2. i ti, to thee. i chwi, to you. 

3. iddo (ef), to him. iddynt (hwy), to them. 
iddi (hi), to her. 

EXERCISE 25. 

1. Peidiwch eistedd wrth y drws. 2. Cafodd Arthur swllt am 
ddarllen llythyr. 3. Gafaelais ynddo gerfydd ei wallt. 4. Yr oedd 
pawb yn ei erbyn. 5. Efe a'm tarawodd ar fy mhen. 6. Y mae y 
ty ar gyfer y bout. 7. Ysgrifenais ati y ddoe. 8. Safodd o flaen 
y tan. 9. Nid oedd dim arian ganddo i'n talu ni. 

1. The cow was iu the middle of the field. 2. He took hold of 
me by my hair. 3. You will find it in Charles's Dictionary. 4. She 
went with him to Aberystwyth. 5. The town is large ; I walked 
through it yesterday. 6. He walked towards us very slowly. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 95 

LESSON 26. 

THE CONJUNCTION. 

A Conjunction is a "word that joins sentences or parts of sentences 
together. 

Yr oeddem yii darilen pan ddaeth 7 dyn at y drws. 
We were reading when ike man came to the door. 

Here pan, wJun, joins the sentence, yr oeddem yn darilen, to the 
sentence, daeth y dyn at y drws. 

Buom yn y ffair ac yn y farchnad. 
We have been in the fair and in the market. 

Here ac, and, joins yn y farchnad to the preceding part of 
the sentence. 

The Conjunctions most generally used are the following : 

a, ac, and. cyn, before. 

hefyd, also. tra, whilst. 

o, od, os, if. nes, hyd nes, until. 

pe, ped, if. cyn gynted ag, as soon as. 

oni, onid \ if. . . .not ; na, nag, than. 

onis, ) except, unless. ond, eithr, but. 

am, becetusf. er hyn, er hyny, yet, nevertheless. 

canys, for, because. yna, then, in that case. 

fel, that, so that. ynte, then, t/ierefore. 

rnegys, as, so as. neu, or. 

y, yr, mai, taw, that. naill ai. . . .ai, either. . . .or. 

pan, pryd, when. naill ai. . . .neu, either. . ..or. 

pryd bynag, wlienever. naill ai. . . .ynte, either. ... or. 

er pan, since. na, nac. . . .na, nac, neither.. . .nor. 

EXERCISE 26. 

1. Yr ydym yn gobeithio y bydd eich brawd yma yfory, 
2. Byddwn yn llawen pe gwelwn ef yn dyfod. 3. Onid atebwch y 
llythyr ni chewch glywed dim am eich chwaer. 4. Os caf arian 
heiio mi a af i'r dref yfory i brynu dillad newydd. 5. Dywedir mai 
hwn yw y dyn cyfoethocaf yn y wlad. 6. Nid yw hi wedi cael 
iechyd da er pan y mae hi yn byw yn y dref. 1. Tra yr oedd hwn 
yn siarad un arall hefyd a ddaeth yuo. 8. Naill ai 01 wen neu 
Blodwen a ganodd neithiwr. 9. Y mae Gwilym yn hen, ond nid 
yw yn gloff. 10. Eisteddais yno hyd ues gwelais ef. 



96 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

1. If you walk in the field you will see the black bull. 2. If she 
had asked her father he would have given her new gloves. 3. When 
he was in the fair he sold two white calves. 4. Though he used to 
buy old books he did not read them. 5. Either your father or your 
brother reaped the field. 6. While the man was working the boy 
was talking and laughing. 7. He says that his grandfather is the 
oldest man in the village. 8. Keep the gloves until I ask you 
for them. 9. Open that window before you sit down. 



LESSON 27. 

H BEFOKE INITIAL VOWELS. 

1. Words beginning with a vowel have the aspirate h prefixed to 
them when they follow certain Pronouns. 

These Pronouns are, ym, 'm, my; ei, 'I, her; ein, 'n, our; 
eu, 'U, their. 

2. The words that generally take the aspirate are Nouns, 
Verbs, Adjectives and Compound Prepositions. 

EXAMPLES. 

Nouns: ei henw (hi), her name; ein hiaith (ni), our language. 

eu hamser (hwy), their time ; o'm hochr (i), on my side. 

Verbs : i'm hachub (i), to save me; yn ei harwain (hi), leading her. 
yn ein hanfon (ni), sending us ; efe a'u hanfonodd (hwynt), 
lie sent them. 

Adjectives: ei hanwyl fam, her dear mother ; eu hunig ferch, their 
only daughter. 

Compound Prepositions: yn ei herbyn hi, against her; ar ein hoi, 
after us. 

3. When a Finite Verb beginning with a vowel follows ei 
masculine, his, the aspirate h is prefixed to that Verb. Mi a'i 
bachubais ef, I saved him. Hi a'i hatebodd ef, she answered him. 

4. But when an Infinitive Verb (a Verb-noun), beginning with a 
vowel follows ei masculine, his, no aspirate is prefixed to that Verb. 
Wedi ei achub ef, having saved him ; yn ei ofni ef, fearing him. 

5. In the following examples the Singular and Plural and the 
three Persons of the Pronouns are inserted. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



97 



ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 



SINGULAR. 

1. o'm harian (i), of my money. 

2. o'th arian (di), of thy money. 

3. o'i arian (ef), of his money. 
o'i harian (hi), of her money. 

1. fy enw (i), my name. 

2. dy enw (di), thy name. 

3. ei enw (ef), his name. 
ei henw (hi), her name. 

VERBS. 
FINITE. 

efe a'm hatebodd (i), he answered me. 
efe a'th atebodd (di), he answered thee. 
efe a'i hatebodd (ef) , he answered him. 
efe a'i hatebodd (hi), he antwered her. 
efe a'n hatebodd (ni), he answered us. 
efe a'ch atebodd (chwi), he answered you. 
efe a'u hatebodd (hwynt), he answered 
them. 



NOUNS. 

PLURAL. 

o'n harian (ni), of our money. 
o'ch arian (chwi), of your money. 
o'u harian (hwy), of their money. 



ein henw (ni), our name. 
eich enw (chwi) , your name. 
eu heuw (hwy), their name. 



INFINITIVE (VERB-NOUN). 
i'm hatal (i), to stop me. 
i'th atal (di), to stop thee. 
i'w atal (ef), to stop him. 
i'w hatal (hi), to stop her. 
i'n hatal (ni), to stop us. 
i'ch atal (chwi), to stop you. 
i'w hatal (hwynt) to stop 
them. 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 



1. yn fy erbyn (i), against me. 

2. yu dy erbyn (di), against thee. 

3. yn ei erbyn (ef), against him. 
yn ei herbyn (hi), against her. 

1. o'm hachos (i), because of me. 

2. o'th achos (di), because of thee. 

3. o'i achos (ef), because of him. 
o'i hachos (hi), because of her. 

6. The numeral ugain takes the aspirate h after the Preposition 
ar, on; as, 

un ar hugaiii, one on twenty, twenty-one, 
y ddegfed ar hugain, the tenth on twenty, the thirtieth. 
G 



yn ein herbyn (ni), against us. 
yn eich erbyn (chwi), against you. 
yn eu herbyn (hwynt), against them. 

o'n hachos ni, because of us. 
o'ch achos chwi, because of you. 
o'u hachos hwy, because of them. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



EXERCISE 27. 

1. Edrychodd yr eneth dros ei hysgwydd. 2. Beth yw ei hoed 
hi? Y mae hi yn saith ar hugain. 3. Yr oedd eich mam yn ein 
hateb, ac nid oedd yn ein hofni. 4. Y mae ei nain wedi gwneud ei 
hewyllys, ac y mae hi wedi gadael ei harian i'w hfryrion. 5. Pan 
syrthiodd Olwen i'r afon, neidiodd y dyn ar ei hoi i'w hachub. 
6. Y mae ei hunig ferch yn byw yn Merthyr. 7. Gwerthodd hi ei 
hwyn am wyth swllt ar hugain yr un. 8. Daeth i'm hatal i. 

1. Their money is in the house. 2. What is her name? Her 
name is Blodwen. 3. He has taken too much of our time. 4. She 
sold her lamb for twenty-one shillings. 5. Their only son is on 
the sea. 6. She has lost her dear mother. 7. Arthur is on our 
side, not on their side. 8. She will be thirty one next week. 

LESSON 28. 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

The following Verbs are irregular, gwybod, to know; adnabod, 
adwaen, to know, to be acquainted with ; to recognise; dyfod or dod, 
to come; myned or mynd, to go; gwneud or gwneuthur, to do; 
cael, to have. 

QWYBOD, to know. 

INFLECTED FORMS. PERSONAL. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. IMPERFECT TENSE. 

I know. I knew, I used to know. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwn. gwyddom. gwyddwn. gwyddem. 

2. gwyddost. gwyddoch. gwyddit. gwyddech. 

3. gftyr. gwyddant. gwyddai. gwyddant. 

PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

/ have known, I knew. I had known. 

1. gwybum. gwybuom. gwybuaswn. gwybuasem. 

2. gwybuost. gwybuoch. gwybuasit. gwybuasech. 

3. gwybu. gwybuant. gwybuasai. gwybuaseut. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 99 



FUTURE TENSE. 


FUTURE PERFECT TBNSE. 


I shall or will know. 


I shall or will have known 




(in subjoined clauses). 


SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


1. gwybyddaf. gwybyddwn. 
2. gwybyddi. gwybyddwch. 
3. gwybydd. gwybyddant. 


gwybyddwyf. gwybyddom. 
gwybyddech. gwybyddoch. 
gwybyddo. gwybyddont. 


FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 


IMPERATIVE MOOD. 


Contracted Form. 


Know. 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwypwyf, gwypof. gwypom. gwybyddwn, 

gwypwn. 

2. gwypych, gwypech. gwypoch. gwybydd. gwybyddwch, 

gwypwch. 

3. gwypo. gwypont, gwybydded, gwybyddant, 

gwyped, gwypant. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENS* (the aame as the Future Perfect). 

(that) I may know. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwybyddwyf, gwypwyf. gwybyddom, gwypom. 

2. gwybyddech, gwypech. gwybyddoch, gwypoch. 

3. gwybyddo, gwypo. gwybyddont, gwypont. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 
(that) I might know ; (if) I knew. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwyddwn, gwybyddwn, gwyddem, gwybyddem, 

gwypwn. gwypem. 

2. gwyddit, gwybyddit, gwyddech, gwybyddech, 

gwypit. gwypech. 

3. gwyddai, gwybyddai, gwyddent, gwybyddent, 

gwypai. gwypent. 

Pluperfect Tense, (that) I would have known ; (if) I had knoicn, 
gwybuaswn, &c. The same as the Pluperfect Indicative. 



IOO A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PASSIVE. IMPERSONAL. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, gwyddys, gwyddir, gwys, it is known. 
Imperfect, gwyddid, gwybyddid, gwypid, it was known. 
Perfect (Aorist). gwybuwyd, gwypwyd, it was or has been known. 
Pluperfect, gwybuasid, it had been known. 
Future, gwyddir, gwybyddir, it will be known. 
Future Perfect, gwybydder, gwyper, it will have been known 
(in subjoined clauses). 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

.wybydder, gwyper, let it be known ; be it known. 

SUB-TUNG TIVE MOOD. 

Present, gwybydder, gwyper, (that) it may be known. 

Imperfect, gwyddid, gwybyddid, gwypid, (that) it might be known. 

Pluperfect, gwybuasid, (that) it would have been known. 

EXERCISE 28. 

1. Gwyddom mai Olwen yw y goreu. 2. Fe wyr y dyn pwy sydd 
yn byw yn y ty coch. 3. A wyddoch chwi os yw Blodwen yn 
y ty ? Na wyddom ; nid ydym wedi ei gweled am wythnos. 
4. Ni wyddem mai Arthur gollodd yr arian. 5. Pwy brynodd 
y ddafad ddu? Wn i ddim. 6. Ni wyddant ddim am y wlad. 
7. A wyddoch chwi enw y plentyn? Na wn i. 8. Gwyddom 
ii henw hi. 9. Ni wyddys pwy roddodd yr arian i'r dyn. 

1. They knew that Blodwen was the eldest. 2. Do you know who 
has bought the white house? I do not (know). 3. We do not 
know who has read your new book. 4. She did not know who sold 
the red cow. 5. Who sold the black lamb ? I don't know. 6. She 
knew nothing about the book. 7. No one knew anything. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



101 



LESSON 29. 

ADNABOD and ADWAEN. 
to know, to be acquainted with, to recognise. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

I know. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. adwaen. adwaenom. 

2. adwaenost. adwaenoch. 

3. edwyn. adwaenant. 

PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. 
/ knew, I have known. 

1. adnabum. adnabuom (-asom). 

2. adnabuost. adnabuoch (-asoch). 



IMPERFECT TENSB. 

I knew. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

adwaenwn. adwaenem. 
adwaenit. adwaenech. 
adwaenai. adwaenent. 

PLUPERFECT TBNSB. 

/ had known. 

adnabuaswn. adnabuasem. 
adnabuasit. adnabuasech. 



3. adnabu. adnabuont (-asant). adnabuasai. aduabuasent. 



FUTURE TENSH. 

/ shall or will know. 



1. adnabyddaf. 

2. adnabyddi. 

3. adnebydd. 



adnabyddwn. 

adnabyddwch. 

adnabyddant. 



FUTURE PERFECT TENSE 

(Contracted Form). 

1. adnapwyf. adnapom. 

2. adnepych. adnapoch. 

3. adnapo. adnapont. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Know. 

1. adnabyddwn. 

2. adnebydd, adnabyddwch. 

3. adnabydded, adnabyddant. 



FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 

/ shall or will have known. 

(in subjoined clauses). 
adnabyddwyf adnabyddom. 
adnabyddych adnabyddoch. 
aduabyddo adnabyddont. 

The Future and the Future Perfect 
are also formed regularly from 
adwaen. 

Future, adwaenaf, &c. 
Future Perfect, adwaenwyf , &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, (that) I may know. 
adnabyddwyf, adwaenwyf, &c. 
the same as the Future Perfect. 
Imperfect (that) I might know ; 

if I knew. 
adwaenwn, &c. The same as 

the Imperfect. 



IO2 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Imperfect from adnabod. Contracted Form. 

1. adnabyddwn, adnabyddem. adnapwn, adnapem. 

2. adnabyddit, adnabyddech. adnapit, adnapech. 

3. adnabyddai, adnabyddent. adnapai, adnapent. 

Pluperfect Tense, (that) I would have known ; (if) I had known. 
adnabuaswn, &c. The same as the Pluperfect Indicative. 

PASSIVE. IMPERSONAL. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, adwaenir fi, &c., I am known. 
Imperfect, adwaenid fi, &c., I was known. 
Perfect (Aorist). adnabuwyd fi, &c., I was known. 
Pluperfect, adnabuasid fi, &c., I had been known. 
Future, adnabyddir fi, &c., I thall be known. 
Future Perfect, adwaener, adnabydder, adnaper fi, &c., / thall 
have been known (in subjoined classes). 

IMPERATIVE MOOD, 
adwaener, adnabydder, adnaper fi, &c., let me be known. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, adwaener, adnabydder, adnaper fi, &c., (that) I may 
be known. 

Imperfect, adwaenid, adnabyddid fi, &c., (that) I might be kn^wn ; 
(if) I were known. 

Pluperfect, adnabuasid fi, &c., (that) I would have been known; 
(if) I had been known. 

Note. Care must be taken to distinguish between the meanings 
of adnabod or adwaen and gwybod. 

Qwybod means to understand, to comprehend clearly, to have 
full information. 

He knows the history of our country. Y mae ef yn gwybod 
hanes ein gwlad. 

We know what we are, but we know not what we shall be. 
Ni a wyddom beth ydym, ond ni wyddom beth a fyddwn. 
Adnabod or adwaen means (1) to be acquainted with, 
(2) to recognise from certain marks or personal appearance. 
We know that man, adwaenom y dyn. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. IOJ 

EXERCISE 29. 

A. 1. Nid ydym yn adnabod y bachgen. 2. Y mae yr eneth yn 
adnabod llais ei mam. 3. Nid adnabu y dyn ei blaiit ei hun. 
4. Nid adwaen i y dyn. 5. Nid oedd neb yno a'm hadweinai. 
6. Yr ail waith adnabyddwyd Joseph gan ei frodyr. 7. Wrth eu 
ffrwythau yr adnabyddwch hwynt. 8. Mi a'i hadwaen ef. 

1. I do not know your father. 2. They know the man and his 
son. 3. The children knew their father's voice. 4. They knew him 
when they saw him last night. 5. We know the teacher. 6. The 
king did not know Joseph. 7. "We did not know his father. 

B. 1. A wyddoch chwi pwy sydd yn byw yn y t acw? 
Xa wyddom. 2. A ydych chwi yn adnabod y dyn sydd yn byw yn 
y ty acw? Nac ydym. 3. Gwyddai yr adwaenwn ef. 4. Y maent 
yn gwybod llawer, ond nid ydynt yn gwybod digon. 5. Nid ydym yn 
gwybod beth yw ei hoed hi. 6. Ni &yr neb ddim am dano. 

1. We know who broke the window. 2. We know the boy who 
broke the window. 3. They did not know that I knew them. 
4. I knew your brother as soon as I saw him. 5. She does 
not know us. 6. We knew something about that lake. 



LES50N 30. 
DYFOD, DOD, to come. 

The Stems are deu, del, daw, or do, and in the Past Tenses, 
daeth. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES. 
/ come, I sAall, or will come. 

SINGULAR. PLUBAL. 

1. deuaf, delaf, dof. deuwn, delwn, down. 

2. deui, deli, doi. deuwch, delwch, dowch, dewch. 

3. daw, del. deuant, delant, d8nt. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 
I came, luted to come, I was coming. 

1. deuwn, delwn, down. deuem, delem, doem. 

2. deuit, delit, doit. deuech, delech, doech. 

3. deuai, delai, doi. deuent, delent, doent. 



IQ4 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. 
/ came, I htive come. 

1. daetiram, deuthum. daethom, deuthom. 

2. daethost, deuthost. daethoch, deuthoch. 

3. daeth. daethant, deuthant. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

1. daethwn, delswu. daethem, delsem. 

2. daethit, delsit. daethech, delsech. 

3. daethai, delsai. daethent, delsent. 

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 
I shall or will have come (in subjoined clauses). 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. deuwyf, delwyf. deuom, delom. 

2. deuych, delych. deuoch, deloch. 

3. delo. deuont, delont. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Come. 

1. deuwn, delwn, down. 

2. tyred, tyrd deuwch, delwch, dowch, dewch. 

3. deued, deled, doed. deuant, delant, dont. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, (that) I may come ; delwyf, &c. The same as the Future 
Perfect. 

Imperfect, (that) I might come; (if) I came ; deuwn or delwn, &c. 
The same as the Imperfect Indicative. 

Pluperfect, (that) I would have come ; (if) I had, come, daethwn or 
delswn, &c. The same as the Pluperfect Indicative. 

PASSIVE. IMPERSONAL. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present and Future, deuir, delir, doir, it is coming, there is coming ; 
it will come. 

Imperfect, deuid, delid, doid, it was coming. 
Perfect (Aorist). deuwyd, daethpwyd, dowd, it is come. 
Pluperfect, daethid, delsid, it had come. 

Future Perfect, deuir, deler, doer, it will have come (in subjoined 
clauses) . 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. IC5 

IMPERATIVE MOOD, 
deuer, deler, doer, let it come ; let there come. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, deuer, deler, doer, that it may come. 
Imperfect, deuid, delid, doid, (that) it might come. 
Pluperfect, daethid, delsid, (that) it would have come. 

EXERCISE 30. 

1. Daeth y dyn at y ty i ofyn am ei fab. 2. Pa fodd y daethant 
i mewn yma? Nis gvm i ; daethant i mewn pan oeddech chwi yn y 
cae. 3. Pa bryd y daethoch chwi yma ? Daethom yma neithiwr. 
4. Pan ddaw eich tad cawn glywed am y if air. 5. Os dowch chwi 
yma yfory mi a'ch talaf am y defaid. 6. Cysgodd y dyn, a phan 
ddaeth ato ei nun nid oedd yn gwybod lie yr oedd. 7. Deuai i'ch 
gweled pe bai ganddo geffyl da. 8. Ni ddaw neb atoch heno. 

1. Come to see me to-morrow. 2. 1 would come to see you if I had 
a strong horse. 3. When did you come to the village ? I came 
yesterday. 5. If you come here to-night I will give you the money. 
6. She came here to sell her lambs. 7. The man does not know when 
he will come to see us. 8. They will not come this week. 



LESSON 31- 
MYNED, to go. 

In ordinary conversation myned is contracted to mynd. 
Myned is used only in the Compound Forms with Bod, as, Yr 
wyf yn myned, / am going ; yn mynd, going. 
The stems for the inflected forms are a-, el-, aeth-. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES. IMPERFECT TENSE. 

I go, 1 am going ; I shall or will go. 1 used to go ; I was going. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. af, elaf. awn, elwn. awn, elwn. aem, elem. 

2. ai, ei, eli. ewch, elwch. ait, elit. aech, elech. 

3. a, el, aiff, eiff. ant, elant. ai, elai. aent, elent. 



iO6 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

PERFECT (AORIST) TEXSB. PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. 

I went ; I have gone. Colloquial Form. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. aethum, 1 elais. aethom, elsom. eis. aesom. 

2. aethost, elaist. aethoch, elsoch. eist. aesoch. 

3. aeth, elodd. aethaut, elsant. aeth. aesant. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. FUTURE PERFECT. 

Ihadgone. I shall or will have gone. 

(in subjoined clauses). 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. aethwn, elswn. aethem, elsem. elwyf, elof. elom. 

2. aethit, elsit. aethech, elsech. elych, elot. eloch. 

3. aethai, elsai. aethent, elsent. elo. elont. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. Go. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. awn, elwn. 

2. dos, cerdd. ewch, elwch, cerddwch. 

3. aed, eled, cerdded. ant, elant, cerddant. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, elwyf, &c., (that) I may go. The same as Future Perfect. 

Imperfect, awn, elwn, &c., (that) I might go ; (if) I might go. The 
same as Imperfect Indicative. 

Pluperfect, aethwn, elswn, &c., (that) 7 would have gone ; (if) I 
had gone. The same as Pluperfect Indicative. 

PASSIVE IMPERSONAL. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present and Future, eir, elir, it is going, there in going, men go. 
Imperfect, eid, elid, it was going. 
Perfect (Aorist) aed, aethpwyd, it is gone. 
Pluperfect, aethid, elsid, it had gone. 
Future Perfect, aer, eler, it will have gone (in subjoined clauses). 

i The forms aethum, &c., sing, and plu., perf. and pluperf. are 
sometimes changed into euthum, &c. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. IO7 

IMPERATIVE MOOD, 
aer, eler, let it go, let these go. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, aer, eler, (that) it may go. 
Imperfect, eid, elid, (that) it might go. 
Pluperfect, aethid, elsid, (that) it would have gone. 

EXERCISE 31. 

1. Ni a awn yno yfory os dewch chwi gyda ni. 2. Fe aiff y dyn 
yno i weled ei fab. 3. Ewch i'r ysgol gyda'r plant, a pheidiwch a 
chwareu ar y ffordd. 4. Aeth y wraig yno i ofyn am ei harian. 
5. Aethom at y ty ond ni welsom neb yno. 6. Awn ato heno. 

1. The man went to the fair to buy a cow and a calf. 2. Go to 
that house and ask for water. 3. They went to your house, but 
they did not see your father. 4. They will go to the village to sell 
their lambs. 5. I will go wherever you go. 6. Let us go home. 



LESSON 32. 
QWNEUD, GWNEUTHUR, to make, to do. 

The stems are gwna-, gwnel-, gwnaeth-. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES. 

I do ; I shall or will do. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwiiaf, gwnelaf gwnawn, gwnel wn. 

2. gwnei, gwneli. gwnewch, gwnelwch. 

3. gwna, gwnel, gwnaiff. gwnant, gwnelant. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 
/ used to do ; I was doing. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwnawn, gwnelwn. gwnaem, gwnelem. 

2. gwiiait, gwnelit. gwnaech, gwnelech. 

3. gwnai, gwnelai. gwnaent, gwnelent. 



IO8 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. 
/ did ; I have done. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwnaethum, gwneuthum. gwnaethom, gwneuthom, 

gwnelsom. 

2. gwnaethost, gwneuthost. gwnaethoch, gwneuthoch, 

gwnelsoch. 

3. gwnaeth. gwnaethant, gwneuthant, 

gwnelsant. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 
I had done. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwnaethwn, gwnelswn. gwnaethem, gwnelsem. 

2. gwnaethit, gwnelsit. gwnaethech, gwnelsech. 

3. gwnaethai, gwnelsai. gwnaethent, gwnelsent. 

PERFECT (AORIST) TENSE. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Colloquial Form. Colloquial Form. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gvmeis, gwnes, gwneusom. gwneuswn, gwneusem. 

2. gwneist, gwnest, gwneusoch. gwneusit, gwneusech. 

3. gwnaeth, gwneusant. gwneusai, gwneusent. 

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 
I shall or will have done (in subjoined clauses). 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwnelwjrf. gwnelom. 

2. gwnelych. gwneloch. 

3. gwnelo. gwnelont. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. Do. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. gwnawn. 

2. g\rna. gwnewch. 

3. gwnaed, gwneled. gwnant. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. IOQ 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, gwnelwyf, &c., (that) I may do. The same as Future 
Perfect. 

Imperfect, gwnawn, &c., (that) I miff fit do ; (if) 1 did. The same 
as Imperfect Indicative. 

Pluperfect, gwnaethwn, &c., (that) I would have done; (if) I had 
done. The same as Pluperfect Indicative. 

PASSIVE IMPERSONAL. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present and Future, gwneir fi, gwnelir fi, &c., / an made. 
Imperfect, gwneid fi, gwnelid fi, &c., / was made. 
Perfect (Aorist). gwnaed fi, gwnaethpwyd fi, &c., 1 have been made. 
Pluperfect, gwnaethid fi, gwnelsid fi, &c., I had been made. 
Future Perfect, gwnaer fi, gwneler fi, &c., I shall have been made 
(in subjoined clauses). 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

gwnaer fi, gwneler fi, &c., let me be made. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, gwnaer fi, gwneler fi, &c., (that) I may be made. 
Imperfect, gwneid fi, gwnelid fi, &c., (that) I might be made. 
Pluperfect, gwnaethid fi, gwnelsid fi, &c., (that) J would have been 
made. 

EXERCISE 32. 

I.Beth a wnaethoch chwi i'r plentyn? Mi a'i hanfonais ef i'r 
ysgol. 2. Gwna yr hyn oil sydd yn dy feddwl. 3. Mi a wnaf iddo 
ef fel y gwnaeth yntau i chwithau. 4. Y peth a f u a fydd, a'r 
peth a wnaed a wneir. 5. Fel y gwneuthum i gwnewch chwithau. 
6. Gwnelsent lawer mwy pe bai ganddynt arian. 7. Gwnaed hyn. 

1. The man was not doing his work. 2. She will do her work in 
the house. 3. He did everything for her sake. 4. Would you do 
that for my sake? I would if I could. 5. Why did they do that ? 
They did it for your sake. 6. Do to them as I have done to you. 



IIO A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

LESSON 33. 
GAEL, CAFFAEL, to get, to obtain, to have. 

The stems are cat-, caff-. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT AND PUTTJBB TBN8BS. IMPERFECT TENSE. 

I get; I shall or will get. I used to get ; I got. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. caf. cawn. cawn, caffwn. caem, caffem. 

2. cei, cefB. cewch. cait, ceffit. caech, caffech. 

3. ca, caiff. cant. cai, caffai. caent, caffeut. 

PERFECT (AORIBT) TENSE. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

I got ; I have got. I had got. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. cefais, ces. cawsom. cawswn. cawsem. 

2. cefaist, cest. cawsoch. cawsit. cawsech. 

3. cafodd, cadd, cas. cawsant. cawsai. cawsent. 

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 
I shall have got (in subjoined clauses). 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1. cafEwyf. caffom. 

2. ceffych, cafEech. caffoch. 

3. caffo. cafEont. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

let.. . .get. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

3. caed, cafEed. cant, cafEant, caffont. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. canVyf, &c., (that) Imay get. The same as Future Perfect. 

Imperfect, cawn, caffwn, &c., (that) I might get; (if) I got. The 
same as Imperfect Indicative. 

Pluperfect, cawswn, &c., (that) I would have got; (if) I had got. 
The same as Pluperfect Indicative. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. Ill 



PASSIVE IMPERSONAL. 

The Passive Forms of cael have the meaning of to be found. 
EXAMPLE. Yr hwn y ceffir y cwpan gydag ef a fydd was i mi. 
He with whom the cup is found shall be my servant. 

Present and Future, ceir fi, ceffir fi, &c., / am found; /shall be 
found. 

Imperfect, ceid fi, ceffid fi, &c., I was found. 

Perfert (Aorisf). cafwyd fi, caffwyd fi, caed fi, cawd fi, &c., / wan 
found. 

Pluperfect, cawsid fi. &c., / had been found. 

Future Perfect, caer fi, caffer fi, &c., / shall have been found (ia 
subjoined clauses). 

IMPERATIVE MOOD, 
caer fi, caffer fi, &c. , let me be found. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, caer fi, caffer fi, &c., (that) I may be found. 

Imperfect, ceid fi, ceffid fi, &c., (that] I might be found; (if) I were 
fo und. 

Pluperfect, cawsid fi, &c., (that) I would have been found; (if) /" 
had been found. 

EXERCISE 33. 
Note. For cael before Verbs see Lesson 10. 

1. Aethum i bob ty yn y pentref i geisio y llyfr, ond nid oedd i'w 
gael. 2. Cewch yr arian gan eich tad pan ddaw adref. 3. A 
gawsoch chwi rywbeth ganddo ? Cawsom. 4. Beth a gaiff hi am 
weithio ? CaifE bedwar swllt ar hugain. 5. Cefais afal ganddo. 
6. Cant glywed oddi wrth eu mab yr wythnos nesaf. 7. Ni chawn 
ni ein talu am wythnos. 8. A gawsoch chwi eich talu am weithio ? 
Do, cawsom bymtheg swllt ar hugain. 9. Cafwyd ef yn farw. 

1. You shall have the two books when your father comes (=will 
come) from the village. 2. Did you get something from him? I 
did ; I got three shillings. 3. We got the apple from your mother.. 
4. They shall write the letter to-morrow. 5. It is found here. 







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IARLLES Y FFYNON. 

(Talfyriad.) 

THE LADY OF THE FOUNTAIN, 

(An Abridgment.) 



1. Llys Arthur. 

1. UN diwrnod yr oedd y brenin Arthur yn eistedd 
mewn ystafell yn ei 7 lys yn y 2 brif- 6 ddinas, Caerllecn 
ar Wysg. Yr oedd yno gyd ag ef Owen, s fab Urien, 
Cynon, "fat Clydno, Cai, 8 fab Cyner, a Gwenhwyfar, 
y 6 frenines, a'i llaw- 8 forwynion yn gwnio wrth y 
ffenestr. 

2. YB, 'nghanol llawr yr ystafell yr oedd y brenin 
Arthur yn eistedd ar *orsedd o 6 frwyn, a llawrlen o 
sidan metyn-'goch o *dano, a gobenydd o'r un def nydd 
o 8 daE ei 2 benelin. 

Ar hyny y dy wedodd Arthur wrthynt, " Ha Vyr, 
mi a 'gysgaf ychydig, tra y 6 fyddwyf yn aros fy 
6 mwyd : ac yinddiddan a *ellwch chwithau, a J chym- 
eryd ystenaid o 8 fedd a golwython gan Cai." 

Ac yna y cysgodd y brenin. 

3. Gofynodd Cynon, 8 fab Clydno i Cai am yr hyn a 
addawsai Arthur iddynt. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. IIS 

Yna Cai a aeth i'r *gegin ac i'r f edd- I gell, a daeth 
yn ol ag ystenaid o 8 fedd, cwpan aur, a llonaid ei 
"ddwrn o 5 f'erau a golwython arnynt. 

Cymerwyd y golwython, a dechreuwyd yfed y 
medd. 

" Yn awr,"ebe Cai, " telwch i minau fy ymddiddan." 

" Cynon," ebe Owen, " tal yr ymddiddan i Cai." 

" Mi a *wnaf ," ebe Cynon. 



2. Hanes Cynon. 

1. UNIG 8 fab fy mam a'm tad oeddwn i ; a 2 phan yn 
ieuanc, yr oeddwn o 3 dymer 3 danllyd ac yn hynod o 
5 falch. Ni 3 thebygwn 6 fod neb yn y byd a'm trechai 
mewn unrhy w anturiaeth. Wedi i mi *orchfygu pawb 
yn yr un *wlad a mi, ymadewais oddi yno, a ^jherddais 
hyd eithafoedd byd a diffaethwch. 

2. O'r diwedd daethum i 6 ddyffryn yn llawn o 'goed 
uchel. Cerddais 7 lwybr ynddo hyd y prydnawn, ac 
yna y daethum i 8 faes mawr. Yn 2 mhen pellaf y 
maes yr oedd Caer 8 fawr yn disgleirio. 

3. Pan yn nesu tu ag ati gwelwn 6 ddyn wedi ei 
Visgo mewn dillad sidan. Efe a'm cyfarchodd, ac a 
aeth gyd a mi tu a'r J Gaer 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



I l6 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

3. Cynon yn y Gaer. 

1. YN y neuadd yr oedd pedair morwyn ar"hugain 
yn gwnio defnydd sidan wrth y ffenestr. Hyn a 
6 ddy wedaf i ti, Cai, 5 fod yn 3 decach yr hagraf o honynt 
na'r Mecaf a *welaist ti erioed yn Ynys Prydain. 

2. Ar fy 6 nyfodiad i'r neuadd cyfodi a 5 wnaethant, 
a daethant tuag ataf i'm derbyn. Cymerodd chwech 
o honynt fy march a dodasant ef yn yr ystabl. 
Chwech ereill a ^ymerasant fy arfau, ac a'u golch- 
asant mewn llestr nes ocddent cyn *wyned a'r peth 
gwynaf a Svelwyd erioed. 

3. Y trydydd chwech o honynt a "ddodasant 7 liein- 
iar ar y bj 7 rddau, ac a 2 barotoisant 5 fwyd. Y pedwer- 
ydc chwesk a ddiosgasant fy *ngwisg teithio oddi am 
danaf, a rhoddasant *wisg arall i mi. Dygasant hefyd 
'g&wgiau arian a dwfr ynddynt i mi i ymolchi, a 
"thywelau o 7 lian gwyrdd a rhai gwynion. 



4. Y *Wledd. 

1. Y gwr a *welswn gyneu a eisteddodd wrth y 
bwrdd, a minau yn nesaf ato, a'r gwragedd oil islaw i 
mi, oddi eithr y rhai oeddent yn gweini. 

2. Arian oedd y bwrdd, a llian main oedd lleni y 
bwrdd. Nid oedd un llestr ar y bwrdd ond aur neu 
arian neu J gorn buffalo. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowel marked . 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



3. Bwyta a Vnaethom mewn distawrwydd, ac ni 
Mdywedodd y gwr nac un o'r morwynion un gair 
wrthyf. 

4. Pan 8 feddyliodd y gwr fod yn Veil genyf ym- 
ddiddan na bwyta, gofynodd i mi pwy oeddwn. 
Atebais ef, a dywedais fy 6 mod yn ceisio rhywun 
a *allai fy *ngorchfygu. 

5. Edrychodd y dyn arnaf a gwenodd. Dy wedodd 
wrthyf, " Pe na 3 thebygwn y deuai gormod o *ofid i ti, 
mi a 8 fynegwn yr hyn yr wyt yn ei 'geisio." 

6. " Cwsg yma heno, a J chyfod i fyny yn 6 fore 
a 'chymer y ffordd a Veli ar hyd y dyffryn hyd oni 
6 ddelych i'r coed y daethost trwyddo." 

7. " Yn y coed ti a Veli Vahan-ffordd ar y Haw 
c dde. Cerdda ar hyd hono hyd oni 6 ddelych i 8 faes 
mawr a 3 thwmpath ar ei ] ganol." 

8. " Ar bsn y twmpath ti a Veli *wr du mawr, yr 
hwn sydd 'gymaint a dau o Vyr y byd hwn. Un 
troed sydd idclo, ac un llygad yn ^ghanol ei 3 dalcen." 

9. " Yn ei 7 law y mae rfon o haiarn, ac nid oes dau 
4 wr yn y byd na J chafFent eu baich yn y ffon hono." 

10. " Ti a Veli 8 fil o auifeiliaid gwylltion yn pori 
o'i J gylch. Gofyn iddo, ac efe a 8 fynega y fFoidd i ti, 
fel y ceffych yr hyn a 'geisi." 



5. Y Cawr Du. 

1. Hir y gwelais y nos hono. Boreu 3 dranoeth 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

> c, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9rh. 



Il8 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

aethum ar hyd y dyffryn i'r coed ac i'r *wahan-ffordd. 
a J chyrhaeddais y maes. Rhyfeddais pan 4 welais 5 fod 
yno 3 dair gwaith 8 fwy o anifeiliaid gwylltion nag y 
dywedodd gwr y *Gaer wrthyf. 

2. Gwelais y cawr du yn eistedd ar 2 ben y twmpath. 
Mwy o 7 lawer oedd efe na'r hyn a 8 feddyliais ei 6 fod. 

Y ffon haiarn y dywedasai y gwr i mi ei bod yn 
llwyth dau 4 wr, yr wyf yn sicr, Cai, ei bod yn 6 ddigon 
o 7 lwyth i 2 bedwar milwr. Hono oedd yn Haw y gwr 
du. 

3. Gofynais iddo pa awdurdod oedd ganddo ar yr 
anifeiliaid hyny. 

" Mi a 6 ddangosaf i ti. 6 ddyu bychan," ebe fe. 

4. Cymerodd y ffon yn ei 7 law, a 3 tharawodd J garw 
a hi 6 ddyrnod mawr oni 9 roddodd efe 6 frefiad ucbel. 
Wrth 'glywed y lief daeth yr holl anifeiliaid yno, ac 
yr oeddent cyn amled mewn nii'er a'r ser yn yr awyr. 

5. Edrychodd y cawr du arnynt, ac archodd iddynt 
"fyned i 2 bori. Hwythau a *ostyngasant eu penau i 
6 ddangos eu parch iddo fel y gwna deiliaid i'w 
"harglwydd. 

6. Yna mi a 4 ofynais y ffordd iddo, a dywedais wrtho 
y 8 fath *wr oeddwn, a'r hyn yr oeddwn yn ei r geisio. 



6. Atebiad y Cawr Du. 

1. Cymer y ffordd hyd at 2 ben y maes, a J cherdda 
tu ag at yr *allt acw hyd oni "ddelech i'w 2 phen. Oddi 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowel marked . 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. I 1C) 

yno ti a *weli "ddyffryn mawr. Yn ^ghanol y dyffryn 
ti a *weli 2 bren mawr, a glasach yw ei "frig na'r 
fFynidwydd glasaf. 

2. O s dan y pren hwnw y mae fFynon, ac yn ymyl 
y ffynon y mae llech o 8 farmor. 

Ar y llech y mae cawg arian wrth 'gadwyn arian, 
fel na *ellir eu gwahanu. 

3. Cymer y cawg, a bwrw J gawgaid o'r dwf r ar 2 ben 
y llech. Yna ti a J gly wi 3 dwrf mawr, a 3 thi a debygu 
fod y nefoedd a'r 6 ddaiar yn crynu gan y twrf. 

4. Dilynir y twrf gan J gawod "ddychrynllyd, a bydd 
yn anhawdd i ti ei dioddef a byw. Cenllysg 5 fydd y 
3 gawod, ac ar ei hol y bydd hinon. Ac ni *adewir gan 
y cenllysg un 6 ddeilen ar y pren. 

5. Yna y daw llu mawr o adar, a hwy a Mdisgynant 
ar y pren. Ni 'chlywaist erioed yn dy *wlad dy hun 
] gerdd cystal ag a 'ganant. 

6. A 2 phan 5 fyddi yn mwynhau cerdd yr adar ti a 
*glywi Muchan yn dyfod ar hyd y dyfFryn tu ag atat. 
Yna ti a *weli "farchog mewn gwisg o sidan du, ar 
'gefn march du, a baner 5 fechan o 7 lian du ar ei *wayw- 
ffon. 

7. Efe a *wna ymosodiad arnat cyn J gynted ag y 
gallo. Os bydd i ti ffoi rhagddo, efe a'th 4 oddiwedda ; 
os bydd i ti ei arcs, efe a'th 4 edy (*adawa) ar draed ; 
ac oni J chei di'ofid yno, ni 9 raid i ti ymofyn am *ofid 
tra s fyddi byw." 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowel marked . 



I2O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

7. Y Ffynon. 

1. Dilynais y ffordd hyd oni 6 ddaethum i 2 ben yr 
'allt, ac oddi yno gwelwn fel y mynegasai y cawr du 
\rrthyf. Daethum at y pren, a gwelwn y ffynon oddi 
tano, a'r llech 8 farmor ger Haw, a'r cawg arian wrth 
'gadwyn 

2. Cymerais y cawg yn fy Haw, a bwriais 'gawgaid 
o'r dwfr ar y llech. Ar hyny wele 3 dwrf yn dyfod 
llawer mwy dychrynllyd nag y dywedasai y cawr 
wrthyf. 

3. Ar ol y twrf daeth cawod, y "fwyaf a welais 
erioed. Nid wyf yn meddwl y diangasai na dyn na 
llwdn a fuasai allan ar y pryd. 

4. Troaife 'gefn fy march tuag at y 'gawod, a dodais 
^aen fy 3 nhanan ar 2 ben a mwng fy march, a'r rhan 
arall uwch fy 2 mhen fy hun. Felly yr achubais fy 
5 mywyd. Pan edrychais ar y pren nid oedd un 
Mdeilen arno. Yna y daeth hinon. Ar hyny wele yr 
adar yn disgyn ar y pren, ac yn canu ; ac yr wyf yn 
sicr, Cai, na 'chlywais 3 gerdd 'gystal a hono na 'chynt 
na chwedyn. 



8. Marchog y Ffynon, 

1. Pan oeddwn yn mwynhau cerdd yr adar, 
clywais 3 duchan yn dyfod ar hyd y dyffryn tuag ataf, 
ac yn dywedyd, " Ha, "farchog, beth wyt yn ei 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 121 



yma ? Pa 6 ddrwg *wnes i ti, gan dy fod wedi gwneud 
y 5 fath niwed i mi a'm deiliaid heddy w ?" 

2. " Oni Vyddost ti na *adawyd yn 5 fy w na dyn na 
llwdn ag oedd ar y maes yn y J gawod heddy w ?" 

3. Ar hyny gwelwn 8 farchog mewn gwisg o sidan 
du, ar 'gefn march du, yn gyru tuag ataf. Ymosod- 
odd arnaf, ac ymladdodd mor ffyrnig, fel y'm bwr- 
iodd i'r llawr. 

4. Yna dododd ei 4 way wffon 3 drwy fFrwyn fy march, 
ac aeth ymaith a'r 6 ddau 8 farch, gan fy *ngadael i 
ar 7 lawr. 

5. Dychwelais ar hyd y ffordd y daethum. Pan 
'gyrhaeddais y maes lie yr oedd y cawr du, mae yn 
rhyfedd na syrthiais i'r 6 ddaiar rhag cywilydd gan 
^ymaint y gwatwar a J gefais ganddo. I'r *Gaer y 
buaswn ynddi o'r blaen y daethum y nos hono. Ni 
"ddywedodd neb *air wrthyf am fy 3 nhaith i'r ffynon, 
ac ni 6 ddywedais inau 6 ddim wrth neb. 

6. Pan 'gyfodais boreu tranoeth yr oedd march 
gwineu-ddu wedi ei J gyfrwyo yn 2 barod wrth y drvvs. 
Gadewais fy c mendith yno, ac yna dychwelais i'm 
gwlad fy hun. 

Y mae y march hwnw genyf eto ; ac ni 'chyfnewid- 
iwn ef am y march goreu yn Ynys Prydain. 

7. Y mae yn rhyfedd genyf s fod y 8 fath le yn bod 
o 8 fewn terfynau teyrnas y brenin Arthur; ac ni 
^hlywais 5 fod neb ond myti fy hun wedi bod yno 
erioed. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

le, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



122 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

9, Yn y Llys 

1. " Ha ! *w$r," ebe Owen, " onid da 5 fyddai chwilio 
am y lie hwnw ?" 

" Fy ^ghyfaill," ebe Cai, " mynych y dy wedi ar dy 
Mafod, yr hyn nis gwneli ar dy *weithred." 

2. " Yn *wir," ebe Gwenhwyfar, " byddai yn Veil 
dy 'grogi di, Cai, am "ddywedyd y 8 fath *eiriau wrth 
*wr fel Owen." 

" Ha ! *wraig 6 dda," ebe Cai, " nid mwy o J glod i 
Owen a 6 ddywedaist ti na minau." 

3. Ar hyn deffrddd Arthur, a gofynodd os cysgasai 
efe yn hir ? 

" Do, Arglwydd," ebe Owen. 

" Ai amser i ni "fyned at y byrddau ?" 

" Amser, Arglwydd," ebe Owen. 

4. Yna canu corn ymolchi a *wnaethpwyd, ac aeth 
y brenin a'i Meulu oil i 6 f wyta. Wedi iddynt "ddarfod 
bwyta, diflanodd Owen o'i plith, ac aeth i'w 7 lety 
i 2 barotoi ei 8 farch a'i arfau. 



10. Taith Owen. 

1. 3 Dranoeth aeth Owen ar ei 8 farch dros "ddiffaeth 
8 fynyddoedd, a "theithiodd yn 6 mlaen hyd eithafoedd 
y byd. 

2. O'r di wedd efe a 6 ddaeth i'r dyffryn y mynegasai 
Cynon am dano. Cerddodd ar hyd y dyffryn hyd 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 123 

nes y daeth at y 'Gaer ; a gwelodd y gwr, perchen y 
'Gaer yn sefyll ger Haw. 

3. Wedi cyfarch yn *well iddo aeth yn mlaen at 
y *Gaer ; a 2 phan 6 ddaeth i'r ystafell gwelai y morwyn- 
ion yn gwni'o sidan mewn cadeiriau aur. Cafodd yr 
un ^roesaw ganddynt ag a "roddwyd i Cynon. 

4. Ar haner bwyta gofynodd y gwr melyn i Owen 
am ei Maith. Atebodd Owen heb J gelu dim. 

" Yr wyf yn ceisio," ebe fe, " y marchog sydd yn 
cadw y ffynon." 

Gwenodd y gwr, a dywedodd 5 fod yn anhawdd 
ganddo 8 fynegi i Owen yr anturiaeth hono ; er hyny 
fe "ddywedodd y cwbl wrtho. 

5. Eoreu 3 dranoeth parotddd y morwynion y march, 
a 3 theithiodd Owen yn 5 mlaen hyd nes y cyrhaeddodd 
y maes yr oedd y cawr ynddo. A rhyfeddach fu gan 
Owen "faint y cawr na chan Cynon. 

Gofynodd Owen y ffordd iddo, ac yntau a'i hyspys- 
odd. 



11. Y Ddau Farchog. 

1. Cerddodd Owen fel Cynon hyd oni "ddaeth at y 
pren glas. Gwelai y ffynon, a'r llech yn ymyl y 
ffynon a'r cawg arni. 

2. Cymerodd y cawg, a bwriodd a gawgaid o'r dwfr 
ar y llech. Ar hyny daeth twrf, ac ar ol y twrf, 
'gawod. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9rh. 



124 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



Wedi i'r 'gawod 8 fyneci heibio goleuodd yr awyr ; a 
J phan edrychodd Owen ar y pren nid oedd arno un 
Mdeilen. Yna disgynodd yr adar ar y pren, a 
dechreuasant ] ganu. 

3. Pan oedd yn mwynhau cerdd yr adar, gwelai 
"farchog yn dyfod ar hyd y dyffryn. Parotddd Owen 
i'w ^yfarfod. Ymladdasant yn ffyrnig, ac wedi 
iddynt s dori eu gwaywffyn, dadweinio eu cleddyfau 
a *wnaethant. 

4. Yna Owen a 3 darawodd 6 ddyrnod ar y march og 
nes yr aeth ei 'gleddyf trwy ei helm hyd at ei 
ymenydd. 

Gwybu y marchog du ei 5 fod wedi derbyn dyrnod 
angeuol. Trodd 2 ben ei 8 farch ac yna fe ffodd. Ym- 
lidiodd Owen ar ei ol, ac er nad 4 allai ei 3 daro, dilynai 
yn agos ato. 



12. Y 

1. Mewn ychydig amser Owen a *welai o'i 6 flaen 
'Gaer 8 fawr Mdisglaer. Daeth y 6 ddau 8 farchog, y 
naill ar ol y Hall, at 2 borth y J Gaer, a gollyngwyd y 
marchog du i mewn. 

2. Ceisiodd Owen ei b ddilyn, ond nid oedd yn 
6 ddigon cyflym. Gollyngwyd i lawr 6 ddau 6 ddrws y 
porth pan oedd Owen rhyngddynt. Tarawyd ei G farch 
tu cefn i'r cyfrwy gan y drws allan, a 3 thorwyd ef 
3 drwyddo yn 6 ddau haner. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9 rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 125 



3. Dyna lie yr oedd Owen yn ^archaror rhwng y 
6 ddau ddrws, a'i 8 farch wedi ei 7 ladd. 



13. Luned y 8 Forwyn. 

1. Pan oedd Owen felly, efe a welai drwy agen yn 
y drws heol Vyferbyn ag ef, ac ystryt o 3 dai o 2 bob tu 
i'r heol. 

Efe a welai hefyd 8 forwyn a gwallt melyn yn 
cerdded tu ag at y porth. Yr oedd ei gwisg o sidan, ac 
esgidiau o 7 ledr brith ar ei 3 thraed, a 'choron fechan 
o aur am ei 2 phen. Daeth at y porth, ac archodd i 
Owen ei agor. 

2. " Diau," ebe Owen, ' ni ellir agor oddi yma, mwy 
nag y gelli dithau fy *ngwared i oddi yna." 

" Gwir," ebe'r forwyn, " ac y mae yn *resyn nad 
*ellir dy Varedu di. Yr wyf yn gwybod pwy wyt ti. 
Pan oeddwn ar ymweliad a Llys Arthur, buost 
'garedig wrthyf, ac am hyny ini a wnaf yr hyn a 
*allaf i'th 9 ryddhau di." 

3. "Cymer y 8 fodrwy hon, a dod hi am dy 5 i'ys. 
Dod y maen hwn yn dy 7 law, a 'chau dy 6 ddwrn arno, 
a J chyhyd ag y cuddiech di ef, efe a'th ] guddia 
dithau." 

4. "Ar ol i 2 brif ddynion y *dref ymgynghori a'u 



N.B. To the Reader. In this and the following pages the 
Initial Eadical Consonants of words not previously introduced are 
alone given. 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9 rh. 



126 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

gilydd ; hwy a Mdeuant yraa i'th 9 roddi i 8 farwolaeth 
o achos y marchog; a 2 phan na *welont hwy 3 dydi, 
drwg 5 fydd ganddynt." 

5. " Minau a 5 fyddaf ar yr esgyn- 8 faen acw yn dy 
aros di. Tydi a'm gweli i, er na *allaf fi dy *weled di- 
Tyred Mithau, a dod dy 7 law ar 2 bea fy ysgwydd, ac 
yna y gwybyddaf dy fi fod wedi dyibd ataf. Dilyn fi 
y fFordd yr elwyf oddi yno." 

Aeth y 8 forwyn ymaith, a gwnaeth Owen fel y 
dywedasai hi wrtho. 



14. Owen yn y 

1. Ar hyny daeth gw$r o'r Itys i 'geisio Owen i'w 
Mdienyddio; ond ni 6 welsant 6 ddim ond haner y 
march, a ^hawsant eu siomi yn 8 fawr. 

Diflanodd o'u plith yn Mdisylw. Daeth at y 
*forwyn a dododd ei 7 law ar ei "hysgwydd. Aeth 
hithau yn ei blaen ac Owen yn ei dilyn, hyd oni 
Mdaethant at ddrws ystafell 8 fawr hardd. 

2. Agorodd y 8 forwyn y drws, ac wedi iddynt 8 fyned 
i mewn, hi a'i cauodd. Edrychodd Owen dros yr 
ystafell, a gwelodd nad oedd yno yr un hoelen heb ei 
lliwio a lliw gwerthfawr, na'r un ystyllen heb 7 luniau 
euraidd arni o *wahanol 8 fathau. 

3. Cyneuodd y 8 orwyn 3 dan glo. Yna hi a J gymer- 
odd 'gawg arian a dwfr ynddo, a 3 thy wel o 7 lian gwyn, 
a hi a Voddodd y dwfr i Owen j yraolchi. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowels marked . 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 127 

Yna hi a Mdododd o'i 5 flaen ef 5 fwrdd arian wedi ei 
*orchuddio a llian melyn, a rhoddodd iddo ei J giniaw. 

4. Ni Velsai Owen erioed 5 fwyd wedi ei "ddarparu 
yn *well, ac yr oedd yno 6 ddigonedd o hono o 2 bob 
math. Nid oedd ar y bwrdd ond llestri aur ac arian. 

5. Wedi iddo *orffen bwyfca clywodd Owen *waedd 
uchel yn y 'gaer. 

Gofynodd i'r 8 forwyn, " Pa Vaeddi yw hwn ? " 
" Dodi olew ar y gwr da a 2 biau y *gaer y maent," 
ebe'r 8 forwyn. 

6. Ychydig ar ol hyn clywent *waedd arall. 
" Pa Vaeddi y w hwn ? " gofynai Owen. 

" Y gwr a 2 biau y x gaer sydd yn marw yr awr hon," 
ebe'r 8 f orwyn. 



15. Y ^laddedigaeth. 

1. 3 Dranoeth clywodd Owen swn mawr, a 2 phan 
edrychodd allan 3 drwy ffenestr ei ystaf ell, ni *welai na 
dechreu na diwedd i'r lluoedd yn yr heolydd. 

Yr oedd yno *wyr arfog, a gwragedd 7 lawer gyda 
hwynt ar 8 feirch ac ar 3 draed, a J chrefyddwyr y 
6 ddinas yn canu*. 

2. Yn ^ghanol y 3 dorf gwelai yr elor, a lien o 7 lian 
gwyn arni. Nid oedd un dyn dan yr elor nad oedd 
yn arglwydd cyfoethog. 

3. Ar ol y llu gwelai *wraig a'i gwallt yn ymestyn 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



128 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

3 dros ei hysgwyddau. Yr oedd ei gwisg o sidan wedi 
ei rhwygo, ac am ei 3 thraed gwisgai esgidiau o 7 ledr 
brith. 

4. Rhyfedd oedd na buasai wedi ysigo penau ei 
bysedd gan mor ffyrnig y tarawai ac y gwasgai eu 
dwylaw yn J nghyd. 



16. larlles y Ffynon. 

1. Gofynodd Owen i'r 8 forwyn, pwy oedd y *wraig. 
" Gwraig yw hi," ebe'r 8 f orwyn, " y gellir dweud am 

darii mai hi y w y 3 decaf a'r 6 foneddigeiddiaf o *wragedd. 
Fy arglwyddes yw hi, a gelwir hi IARLLES Y FFYNON. 

2. 3 Dranoeth yr oedd yr larlles yn ei hystafell, ac 
ni *oddefai i neb 6 ddyfod ati oherwydd ei 3 thristwch a'i 
gofid. 

Daeth Luned i mewn gan 'gyfarch iddi. Ond nid 
atebodd yr larlles un gair. Teimlodd y forwyn yn 
Mrist, a gofynodd, " Paham nad atebych i mi heddy w ?" 

3. " Luned," ebe'r larlles, " paham na ddaethost i 
ymweled a mi yn fy *ngofid ? I mi yr wyt ya 
6 ddyledus am y cyfan sydd genyt. Mi a'th *wnaethum 
yn 'gyfoethog. Yr oedd yn ^am ynot na buasit wedi 
dyfod ataf." 

4. " Yn wir," meddai Luned, " tebygwn fi fod genyt 
8 fwy o synwyr nag i *ofidio gormod. Ai da i ti 4 alaru 
am y gwr da hwnw sydd wedi marw ? 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowels marked . 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. I2Q 

"Nid oes tebyg i hwnw yn yr holl 5 fyd," ebe'r 
larlles. 

" Gellit ! gael g^r hagr a fyddai cystal os nad gwell 
nag ef," ebe Luned. 

5. "Yn wir," ebe'r larlles, "y mae dy *eiriau yn 
annioddefol, a phe na bai yn *wrthun genyf 9 roddi i 
"farwolaeth un a "fegais, mi a *orchymynwn dy 7 ladd. 

Ond ni ^hei aros mwy yn y Gaer; mi a'th alltudiaf 
di o'r *wlad." 

6. "Y mae yn 6 dda genyf," ebe Luned, "nad oes 
genyt un achos i achwyn arnaf, ond yn unig fy 5 mod 
wedi mynegu yr hyn a 5 fyddai er dy 7 les, pan na *ellit 
*weled hyny dy hun." 

7. Yna Luned a 3 drodd ymaith. Cyfododd yr 
larlles ac aeth ar ei hol at 6 ddrws yr ystafell, a 
2 phesychodd yn uchel. Edrychodd Luned 3 drach ei 
'chefa, a'r larlles a amneidiodd arni. 

Ufuddhaodd Luned, a dychwelodd i'r ystafell at ei 
meistres. 

8. "Mi 4 wn," ebe'r larlles, " dy s fod yn *wyllt dy 
natur, ond gan mai fy lies i sydd genyt mewn golwg, 
dywed wrthyf beth a 6 ddylwn *wneud." 

" Dywedat'," ebe'r forwyn. 

9. " Ti a *wyddost nad *ellir cynal dy arglwyddiaeth 
ond trwy "filwriaeth ac arfau. Am hynny cais yn 
ebrwydd 9 ry w un a'i cynalio." 

" Pa fodd y gallaf wneud hyny ?" gofynai y larlles. 

10. " Fel hyn," ebe Luned. " Oni *elli di ^ynal y 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8 m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowels marked . 

I 



I3O A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

ffynon, ni elli gadw meddiant o dy arglwyddiaeth. 
Ni all neb gynal y ffynon ond un o filwyr Arthur. 
Mi a af i lys Arthur; a bydd yn 'gywilydd genyf os 
deuaf oddi yno heb 8 filwr a J gadwo y ffynon yn 'gystal 
OE nad yn well na'r gwr a'i cadwodd gynt." 

" Anhawdd yw hyny," ebe'r larlles, " eithr dos i 
brofi yr hyn a fi ddywedi," 



17, Y Marchog Newydd. 

1. Dychwelodd Luned adref, a'r larlles a'i derbyn- 
iodd yn llawen. 

" Pa bryd y myni di i mi "ddangos y milwr o lys 
Arthur ?" gofynai Luned. 

" Am haner dydd yfory," ebe'r larlles. 

2. Dranoeth aeth Luned ac Owen at yr larlles, yr 
hon a fu 7 lawen wrthynt. Yna hi a 2 barodd ] gynull 
ei deiliaid oil i'r un lie. Mynegodd iddynt fod yr 
iarllaeth yn *wag, ac na ellid ei ] chynal, ond trwy 
*rym march ac ari'au. 

3. "Minau a roddaf i chwi eich dewis; ai un o 
honoch chwi a'm cymero i, ai caniatau a 4 wnewch i mi 
J gymeryd gwr o le arall, yr hwn a gynal fy iarllaeth." 
Rhoddasant ganiatad iddi gymeryd gwr o le arall. 

4. Yna y dug hithau Esgobion ac Archesgobion i 
wneud ei <<! phriodas ag Owen. A gwyr yr iarllaeth a 
a roddasant *warogaeth i Owen, y marchog newydd. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

le, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



5. Owen a gadwodd y ffynon a'i gleddyf ac a'i 
*waywffon. Os deuai yno farchog^Owen a'i bwriai, a 
gwerthai y march am ei 7 lawn *werth. Rhanai Owen 
yr arian rhwng ei 8 farchogion, ac nid oedd gwr yn y 
wlad a : gerid gymaint ag ef. 

A 3 thair blynedd y bu efe felly. 



18, Hiraeth Arthur. 

1. Un diwrnod fel yr oedd Gwalchmai yn rhodio 
gyda'r brenin Arthur, sylwodd ei fod yn drist iawn. 

2. Gofidiodd Gwalchmai yn fawr, a gofynodd i'r 
brenin, " Arglwydd, paham yr wyt yn edrych mor 
drist ?" 

" Hiraeth sydd arnaf am Owen yr hwn a 'gollais er 
ys tair blynedd," ebe Arthur. Os byddaf 5 flwyddyn 
arall heb ei weled yr wyf yn ofni y byddaf farw. Mi 
a wn mai o achos ymddiddan Cynon y darfu i ni golli 
Owen. 

3. Yna Arthur a J gasglodd filwyr ei dy, tair mil 
mewn rhif, i t'yned i chwilio am Owen. A'r arwein- 
ydd oedd Cynon. 

4. Daeth Arthur a'i filwyr at y gaer, a gwelsant y 
gwr melyn yno. Pan ddaeth atynt efe a'u gwahodd- 
odd i'r gaer i aros am y nos ; ac er cynifer oeddent, 
ni *wyddid dim oddi wrthynt yn y gaer, gan mor 
fawr ydoedd. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



132 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

5. Boreu dranoeth cychwynodd Arthur a'i 7 lu oddi 
yno, a dacthant i'r lie yr oedd y cawr du. A rhyfedd- 
ach o lawer gan Arthur oed'l maint y cawr du nag y 
dywedasid wrtho. I ben yr 4 allt y daethant, ac i'r 
dyffryn hyd y pren glas, ac yno y gwelsant y ffynon 
a'r cawg a'r llech. 

6. Cai a fwriodd gawgaid o'r dwfr ar y llech, a 
daeth twrf ; ac ar ol y twrf , *gawod, yr lion a laddodd 
rai o filwyr Arthur. Pan edrychasant ar y pren, 
gwelsant nad oedd yr un ddeilen arno. Yna disgyn- 
odd yr adar ar y pren, ac yn 6 ddiau ni 'chlywsant 
erioed J gan gystal a 'chan yr adar hyny. 



19. Marchogion Arthur. 

1. Yna gwelent farchog yn dyfod tuag atynt, ac 
aeth Cai allan i'w gyfarfod. Wedi iddynt ymladd 
am ychydig amser, y marchog a s darawodd Cai a'i 
waywftbn nes y torodd ei helm. 

2. Dranoeth aeth marchogion Arthur y naill ar ol y 
Hall i ymladd a marchog y ffynon, ond yr oedd ef 
yn 3 drech na hwynt bob un. 

3. Yna daeth Gwalchmai yn mlaen, a bu yn 
ymladd a'r marchog am hir amser, nes o'r diwedd y 
syrthiodd y ddau oddiar eu meirch. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 133 

Daeth helm Gwalchmai yn rhydd; a phan welodd 
y marchog ei 4 wyneb, e a'i hadnabu. 

4. " Fy arglwydd Gwalchmai," ebe Owen, marchog 
y ffynon, " nis adwaenwn i dydi ; fy J nghefnder wyt, 
cymer fy ''nghleddyf a'm harfau." 

" Tydi, Owen, a'm gorchfygaist i," meddai Gwalch- 
mai, " cymer di fy nghleddyf i." 

5. Arthur a'u canfu yn ymddiddan, a nesaodd 
atynt. 

" Arglwydd Arthur," ebe Gwalchmai, " dyma Owen; 
efe a'm gorchfygodd, ac ni Rhymer efe fy arfau." 

" Arglwydd," ebe Owen, " efe a *orfu arnaf fi, ac ni 
8 fyn efe fy nghleddyf." 

"Moeswch i mi eich cleddyfau," ebe Arthur, "ni 
orfu yr un o honoch ar eich gilydd." 

6. Yna Owen a ddododd ei ddwylaw am 4 wddf 
Arthur i'w ^ofleidio. Daeth yr holl lu yno i weled 
Owen, a mawr oedd eu llawenydd y nos hono. 

Dranoeth hwy a aethant i Gaer larlles y Ffynon ; 
ac yno y buont yn gwledda am dri mis. 

7. Pan ddaeth yr amser i ben, Arthur a ddarparodd 
i ymadael. Danfonodd 'genadau at yr larlles i 
"ddymuno ami *ollwng Owen i 6 ddyfod gyd ag ef am 
dri mis i Gaerlleon. Yr larlles a 'gydsyniocld, er mai 
anhawdd fu hyny ganddi. 

8. Wedi i Owen ddyfod i blith ei ^yfeillion efe a 
arosodd yno 3 dair blynedd yn lie tri mis. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowels marked . 



134 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

20. Owen a'r Llew. 

1. Fel yr oedd Owen yn cerdded efe a glywai 
ysgrech uchel mewn coed. Pan aeth yn mlaen gwelai 
yn nghanol y coed 'glogwyn mawr, ac yn ei ystlys 
'graig 7 lwyd. 

2. Mewn hollt yn y graig yr oedd sarff, ac wrth 
ymyl y graig safai Hew pur ddu. Pan 'geisiai y Hew 
fyned oddi yno, neidiai y sarff tuag ato i'w fi f rathu. 

3. Yna Owen a 6 ddadweiniodd ei gleddyf ac a nesa- 
odd at y graig. Ac f el yr oedd y sarff yn dyf od o'r 
graig, Owen a'i tarawodd a'r cleddyf nes oedd yn 
ddau haner. Wedi iddo sychu ei gleddyf aeth yn 
mlaen fel cynt. 

4. Sylwodd fod y llew yn ei 'ganlyn, ac yn chwareu 
o'i gylch fel milgi a 8 f agasai efe ei him. 

Cerdded a wnaethant yn nghyd hyd yr hwyr. 

5. Pan ddaeth amser gorffwys, Owen a "ddisgyn- 
odd oddiar ei 8 farch, ac a'i gollyngodd i G ddol 'goediog. 
Yna efe a 3 dorodd goed i ! gyneu tan ; a 3 thra yr oedd 
ef yn gwneud hyn fe gasglodd y Hew ddigon o goed 
tan am dair nos. 

6. Yna diflanodd y llew oddi wrtho, ac yn 2 mhen 
ychydig dychwelodd ag iwrch mawr ganddo. Taflodd 
ef i lawr ger bron Owen, ac aeth yn mlaen at y tan. 

Blingodd Owen yr iwrch, a dododd 4 olwython o 
hono ar farau o gylch y tan. Rhoddodd y gweddill 
o'r iwrch i'r llew. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



21. Luned. 

1. Pan oedd Owen ar orffen, efe a glywai ochenaul 
3 drom ddwywaith a theirgwaith yn gyfagos iddo. 
Gofynodd Owen ai b6d dynol oedd yno. 

2. " le yn wir," oedd yr ateb. 

" Pwy wyt ti ?" gofynodd Owen. 

" Myfi y w Luned, llawforwyn larlles y Ffynon." 

" Beth a *wnei di yma ?" ebe Owen. 

3. " Fy ^gharcharu yr ydys," ebe hi, " o achos 
marchog a ddaeth o lys Arthur. Efe a 2 briododd yr 
larlles, a bu am beth amser gyda hi. Yna aeth yn ol 
i lys Arthur, ac ni ddychwelodd oddi yno." 

" A'i *oganu a wnaeth dau o weision ystafell yr 
larlles a'i 4 alw yn 3 dwyllwr. Minau a ddywedais nai 
allai eu dau J gorff hwy ymryson a'i un corff ef." 

4. " Am Mdywedyd hyny fe'm carcharwyd yn y 
llestr maen hwn. Dywedwyd wrthyf na byddai fy 
enaid yn fy 'nghorff, oni ddeuai efe i'm hamddiffyn 
cyn pen diwrnod neillduol. Nid pellach y dydd 
hwnw na 3 threnydd, ac nid oes genyf neb i fyned i'w 
geisio. Ei enw yw Owen ab Urien." 

" Pe gwyddai y marchog hwnw am danat, a wyt ti 
yn sicr y deuai i'th amddiffyn ?" 

" Yr wyf yn eithaf sicr o hyny," ebe hi. 

5. Pan oedd y golwython yn barod, Owen a'u 
rhanodd rhyngddo ef a'r forwyn. Wedi iddynt fwyta 
buont yn ymddiddan hyd y boreu. 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

le, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 
Aspirate h before vowels marked . 



136 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

Gofynodd Owen os oedd t^ yn yr ardal lie y gallai 
efe gael llety y noson hono. 

6. " Oes, Arglwydd," ebe hi, " dos yn dy flaen a 
'cherdda y ffordd ar hyd ochr yr afon, ac yna ti a 
weli gaer fawr a 'thyrau arni. Ti a gei bob croesaw 
gan yr iarll a biau y gaer hono, ac yno y gelli aros 
heno." 

7. Aeth Owen i'r gaer ac arosodd yno ddwy 
noswaith. Gwahoddodd yr iarll cf i aros yno 
ychwaneg, ond ni fynai efe; ac aeth yn mlaen i'r 
ddol yr oedd Luned ynddi. 



22. Owen a'r Gweision. 

1. Gwelai yno 'dan mawr yn llosgi, a dau *was 
hardd eu golwg yn myned a'r forwyn i'w bwrw i'r 
tan. Gofynodd iddynt beth oeddent yn bwriadu ei 
wneud i'r forwyn. 

Gwnaethant yr amod yn hysbys iddo, fel y 
gwnaethai y forwyn y nos cynfc. 

" Ni ddaeth Owen i'w hamddifiyn," meddent, " ac 
*m hyny ni a'i llosgwn hi." 

2. "Diau, ' ebe Owen, " marchog da oedd hwnw, ac 
y mae yn rhyfedd genyf pe gwyddai ef am 'gyfyng- 
der y forwyn na ddeuai i'w hamddiffyn. Ond os 
cymerwch fi yn ei le, mi a ymladdaf a chwi." 

INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS : 

lc, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, Sin, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 137 



" Cymerwn," ebe'r gweision. 

3. Yna dechreuodd y 5 frwydr, a gofid a 'gafodd 
Owen ganddynt. Ar hyny y Hew a ddaeth i helpu 
Owen, a threchwyd y gweision. 

" Arglwydd," ebent hwy, " nid oedd amod i ni i 
ymladd ond a thydi dy hun, ac y mae yn anhawddach 
i ni ymladd a'r anifail acw nag a thydi." 

4. Dododd Owen y Hew yn y lie y buasai y forwyn 
yn ngharchar, ac a wnaeth 8 fur o 8 feini ar y drws. 
Yna fe a ymladdodd a'r gw$r fel cynt. 

5. Ond yr oedd afiechyd hir wedi gwanhau ei 
nerth, ac yr oedd y ddau was yn enill arno. Ni 
2 pheidiodd y Hew a rhuo am f od Owen yn colli ; ac 
o'r diwedd rhwygodd y mur, a gwnaeth ei flfordd 
allan. Neidiodd ar y ddau was, a Haddodd hwynt y 
naill ar ol y Hall. 

Felly arbedwyd Luned rhag ei llosgi. 

6. Yna y daeth Owen, a Luned gyd ag ef i gaer 
larlles y Ffynon. Efe a gymerth yr larlles gyd ag 
ef i Lys Arthur. A hi a fu ei Viaig tra fu hi byw. 



INITIAL EADICAL CONSONANTS : 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



138 A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 

I Wenol 'Gyntaf y Tymor 

Y\7 r ENOL 8 fwyn,ti ddaethost eto, 

* * I'n dwyn a'r go' fod haf ar Vawrio, 
Wedi bod yu hir ymdeithio, 

Croeso, croeso i ti ; 
Nid oe unrhy w 2 berchen aden, 
Fwy cariadus na'r wenolen, 
Pawb o't) weled sydd yn llawen : 

Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 

Ha ! mi wela 'th fod yn chwilio 
Am d) nyth o dan ein bondo, 
Y mae hwnw wedi syrthio, 

Wenol, coelia di ; 
Nid myfi yn *wir a'i tynodd, 
Gwynt a gwlaw y gaua' a'i curodd, 
Yntau o 6 ddarn i ddarn a 'gwympodd : 

Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 

Wenol s dirion, paid a digio, 

Gelli 4 wneud un newydd eto ; 

A 2 phe gallwn, gwnawn dy helpio 

Aros gyda ni : 

Casglaf 'glai, cei dithau Veithio, 
A 'chymeraf *ofal trosto, 
Rhag i'r 'deryn to ddod iddo : 

Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 



INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

lc,'2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U. 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 139 

P'le gadewaist, wenol heini', 
Dy 'gymdeithion, 3 dorf aneiri', 
Oedd y llynedd yn ein lloni 

Yma gyda thi ? 
A fu'r oil o honynt 8 feirw, 
A'th *adael di'n amddifad *weddw r t 
Byddai hyny'n chwedl *arw ; 

Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 

Wenol fach, pa ham diengi 

Draw oddi wrthyf ? paid ag ofni ; 

Aros bydd yn ^yfaill i mi 

'Rwy'n dy gam di. 
Credu'r wyf 5 fod genyt *galon 
Bur, 6 ddiniwed, *gy wir, ffyddlon 
Peth anf ynych yn 2 mhlith dynion : 
Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 

Llawer blinder chwerw 2 brofais, 
Er y tro o'r blaen y'th welais, 
Wenol 8 fwyn, a llawer ] gwynais 

P'odd ymd'rewaist ti ? 
A fyddwch chwi, wenoliaid, weithiau 
Yn cyfarfod a blinderau, 
Nes troi'ch twi, twi, twi'n J gwynfanau ? 

Ebe'r wenol Twi, twi, twi ! 

Mi 6 ddymunais, wenol lawen, 
'Ganwaith 8 feddu ar dy aden, 

INITIAL RADICAL CON SONANTS ; 

Ic, 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7U, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



I allu hccleg yn y wybren, 

Uwch y byd a'i J gri; 
Ymrydclhau oddi wrth hclbulon 
Bywyd dynol a'i 4 ofalon, 
Ac fel tithau, 'n iach fy 'nghalon 

Cann uwch eu pen Twi, twi ' 

Mae'th 6 ddyfodiad, addfwyn wenol, 
I ni'n dysgu gwersi buddiol 
Ar bob tymor yn olynol 

Yr ymweli a ni. 
Wyt yn adwaen dy 3 dymorau, 
Ac yn cadw dy amserau 
" Cym'rvVch 9 rybudd, gwnewch fel 8 finau/" 
Ydyw'r llais yn mhob twi, twi 1 

Dyna 'gamp a "ddysgi eto 
Cadw'th wisg yn *lan a 'chryno 
A thithau 'n trin y clai a'i 6 ddwbio 

Wrth *\vneud dy waitii, 
Hoffwn inau ddysgu hono 
Trin y byd, a myned trwyddo 
Heb halogi 'm gwisgoedd ynddo, 

Na rhoi arno'm calon chwaith 

GWILYM HIRAETHOG. 



INITIAL RADICAL CONSONANTS: 

Ic. 2p, 3t, 4g, 5b, 6d, 711, 8m, 9rh. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



141 



ABBREVIATIONS 



USED IN THE 



VOCABULARY 



adj. adjective. 

adv. adverb. 

comp. comparative degree. 

eonj. conjunction. 

eq. equal degree. 

/. feminine gender. 

fut. future. 

imperat. imperative mood. 

indef. indefinite. 

inf. infinitive mood. 

inter, interrogative. 

irr. irregular. 

m. masculine gender. 

n. noun. 

neg. negative. 



part, particle. 

pers. person. 

pht. plural number. 

pos. positive degree. 

pass, possessive. 

prep, preposition. 

pro. pronoun. 

pron.prep pronominal preposition. 

rel. relative. 

s. singular number. 

subj. subjunctive. 

tsuper. superlative. 

v. verb. 

N.W. North Wales. 

S.W. South Wales. 



EXPLANATION. 

Nearly every word in the Story IARLLES Y FFYNON is explained 
in this Vocabulary. Each word should be looked for under its 
Radical Form. 



142 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



VOCABULARY I. 

(WELSH). 



a, adv. part, before verbs, not 

translated. 
a, inter, part, before verbs, riot 

translated. 
a, ac, conj. and. 
&, ag, prep. with. 
a, ag, rel. pro. who; which; that. 
a, ag, adv. as. 
Abertawe, n. Swansea. 
acw, adj. and adv. yonder, 
aclios, n. m. cause. 
o achos, prep, because of. 
achub, v. inf. to save. 
achwyn, v. inf. to complain. 
adar, n. plu. birds. 
aden, n. f. a wing, plu. adenydd. 
aderyn, n. m. a bird, plu. adar. 
aderyn td, a sparrow, 
adnabod, v. inf. to know ; to 

recognise; to be acquainted 

with. 

adnabu,heknew; he recognised. 
ad nod, n. f. a verse (Bible). 
ad r odd, v. inf. to recite; to tell. 
adref, adv. home. 
adwaen, v. inf. to know; to 

recognise; to be acquainted 

with. 

ad daw, v. inf. to promise. 
addfwyn, adj. gentle; mild. 
aeth, he went. 
afal, n. m. au apple. 
afiechyd, n. m. illness. 
afon, n.f. a river ; plu. afonydd. 
agen, n. f. a crack ; an opening. 
agor, v. inf. to open. 



agos, adj. near; adv. nearly. 

angeuol, adj. deadly ; mortal. 

anghofio, v. inf. to forget. 

ai, adv. inter, is it? 

ai ni, ai nid, ai nis, is it not? 

a'i=a ei, and his ; and her. 

ail, adj. second. 

allan, adv. out; adj. outer. 

alltudio, v. inf. to send away. 

am, prep, for; about; around; 
on account of ; conj. because ; 
for. 

a'm=a ym, and my. 

ambell, adj. some ; few. 

ambell waith, adv. sometimes. 

amddifad, adj. destitute ; with- 
out relatives. 

amddif f y n, v. inf. to defend ; 
to protect. 

ami, adv. often ; adj. many. 

amled, adj. eq. as many. 

amneidio, v. inf. to beckon. 

amod, n. f. au agreement ; a 
condition. 

amryw, adj. several. 

amser, au, n.m. time; season. 
bob amser, always. 

aneiri', aneirif, adj. innumer- 
able. 

anfynych, adj. uncommon, rare. 

anhawdd,arf/.difficult,noteasy. 

anifail, n. m. s. au animal. 

anifeiliaid, n. plu. animals. 

annioddefol, adj. unbearable. 

anturiaeth, n. f. enterprise; 
adventure. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



ar, prep, on ; upon. 

ar bwys, adv. near. 

ar gyfer, prep, opposite. 

ar hyd, prep, along. 

ar hyny, upon that. 

ar ol, prep, after. 

ar ei ol, after him. 

ar ei hoi, after her. 
a'r, and the. 

araf, adj. slow ; adv. slowly. 
arall, adj. other; another. 
arbed, v. inf. to preserve ; to 

save. 

archodd, he commanded. 
arch-esgob, n. m. an arch- 
bishop. 

ardal, n. /. neighbourhood. 
arf, n. f. s. a weapon ; a tool. 
arfau, n. plu. weapons; tools; 

arms. 

arfog, adj. armed. 
arglwydd, n. m. a lord. 
arglwyddes, n. f. & lady. 
arglwyddiaeth, n. f. lordship; 

dominion. 

arian, n. m. silver; money. 
arnaf, pro. prep, upon me. 
arni, pro. prep, upon her ; 

upon it. 
arno, pro. prep, upon him ; 

upon it. 

arnynt, pro. prep, upon them, 
aros, v. inf. to wait ; to remain. 
arw, garw, adj. rough, bad. 
arwain, v. inf. to lead. 
arwe'nydd, n. m. a leader; a 

guide. 

asy n, n. m. an ass ; a donkey. 
at, prep. to. 

ataf, pro. prep, to me. 

at!, pro. prep, to her ; to it. 

ato, pro. prep, to him, to it. 
ateb, n. m. an answer; a reply. 
ateb, v. inf. to answer; to reply. 
atebiad, n. m. an answer ; a 

reply. 

athraw, n. m. & teacher. 
aur, n. m. gold. 



awdurdod, n. m. authority 

power. 
awr, /?. /. an hour; plu. oriau. 

yn awr, adv. now 

yr awr hon, this hour; now. 
awyr, n. f. sky. 



B 



bach, adj. small ; little. 
bachgen, n. m. a boy ; a lad. 
bai, n. m. a fault ; a defect. 
bai, byddai, /. subj. he were. 
batch, n. m. a load ; a burden. 
balch, adj. proud. 
baner, n. f. a banner; a flag. 
bar, au, n. m. a bar ; a skewer. 
bara, n. m. bread. 
barnu, v. inf. to judge. 
bendith, n. f. a blessing. 
ber, au, n. f. a skewer. 
beth, pro. inter, what. 
beth bynag, pro. rel. what- 
soever. 

beunydd, adv. daily. 
blaen, n. m. end ; front part. 

o'r blaen, adv. before. 

yn mlaen, adv. forward. 
blaenor, n. m. a leader. 
bloeddio, v. inf. to shout. 
blwyddyn, n. f. a year. 
blynedd, n. f. a year. 
bod, v. inf. to be ; to exist. 
bod, n. m: a living being. 
boddi, v. inf. to drown 
bondo, n. m. eaves of a roof. 
boneddigeiddiaf, adj. sup. of 

most noble birth. 
bore, boreu, n. m. morning. 

yn fore, adv. early. 
braidd, adv. hardly. 
brathu, v. inf. to sting; to 

wound. 
brawd, n. m. a brother ; plu. 

brodyr. 
bref iad, n. m. a bleating ; a- 

lowing. 



144 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. _ART II. 



brenln, n. m. a king. 
brenhines, n. f. a queen. 
brig, n. m. top ; top branches. 
brith, adj. spotted; striped. 
bron, n. f. breast ; side of a hill. 
bron, adv. almost, nearly. 
brwydr, n. f. a battle. 
brwyn, n. plu. rushes. 
buan, adv. soon ; adj. fast. 
buddiol, adj. useful ; beneficial. 
buwch, n. f. a cow. 
bwrdd, n. m. s. a table. 
byrddau, n. plu. tables. 
bwriadu, v. inf. to intend. 
bwrw, v. inf. to throw; to 

unhorse. 

bwyd, n. m. food. 
bwyta, v. inf. to eat. 
bychan, adj. m. bechan, f. 

little, small. 
byd, n. m. world. 
bydd, shall be ; will be. 
toys, edd, n. m. a finger. 
byth, adv. ever. 
byw, v. inf. to live ; adj. live. 
bywyd, /?. m. life. 



cadair, n. f. s. a chair. 

cadeiriau, n. plu. chairs. 

cad w, a. inf. to keep ; to guard. 

cadwyn, n. f. a chain. 

cac* n. m. a field. 

cael, v. inf. to have ; to receive. 

caer, n. f. a walled city ; a castle. 

Caerlleon-ar-Wysg, n. Caer- 

leon-on-Usk. 
cafodd, he received. 
caf f ent, v. subj. they would have. 
cals, v. imperat. seek for. 
calon, n. f. a heart. 
cam, n. m. a wrong; injury. 
camp, n. m. a feat; a game. 
can, n. f. a. song. 
canfod, v. inf. to perceive; to 

see. 



can! u, he perceived ; he saw. 
caniatau, v. inf. to permit. 
caniatad, n. m. permission. 
canlyn, v. inf. to follow. 
canmol, v. inf. to praise. 
canol, n. m. middle. 
cant, adj. a hundred. 
canu, v. inf. to sing. 
canu cloch., to ring a bell. 
canu corn, to blow a horn.. 
can wait h , adv. a hundred times. 
carchar, n. m. a prison. 
carcharor, n. m. & prisoner. 
carcharu, v. inf. to imprison. 
caredig, adj. kind. 
careg, n. f. a stone ; plu. ceryg. 
cariadus, adj. loving; kiad. 
caru, v. inf. to love. 
carw, n. m. a stag ; plu. ceirw. 
casglu, v. inf. to collect. 
cau, v. inf. to shut. 
cawg, n. m. a bowl. 
cawgaid, n. m. a bowlful. 
cawod, n. f. & shower. 
cawr, n. m. a giant ; plu. cewri. 
cef ais, I received ; I had. 
cefn, n. m. a back. 
cefnder, n. m. a (male) cousin. 
ceffych, v. subj. thou mayest 

have. 

ceffyl, n. m. a horse. 
cegin, n. f. a kitchen. 
cei, thou shalt have. 
ceiniog, n. f. a penny. 
ceislo, v. inf. to seek ; to try. 
celu, v. inf. to hide. 
cenad, n. m. a messenger. 
cenllysg, n.plu. hailstones, hail. 
cerbyd, n. m. a carriage. 
cerdd, n. f. music, a song. 
cerdded, v. inf. to walk. 
ci, n. m. a dog; plu. cwn. 
ciniaw, n. m. a dinner. 
claddedigaeth, n. f. a funeral. 
clai, n. m. clay. 
cleddyf, n. m. a sword. 
cloch, n. f. a bell; a clock. 

ar gloch, o'clock. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



145 



clod, n. m. or f. glory; praise. 

cloddio, v. inf. to dig. 

cloff, adj. lame. 

clogwyn, n. m. a cliff ; a rock. 

clywed. v. inf. to hear. 

coch, adj. red. 

coed, n. plu. trees, wood. 

coelio, v. inf. to believe; to 

trust. 

c6f, n. m. memory. 
cofio, v. inf. to remember. 
cofleidio, v. inf. to embrace. 
colli, v. inf. to lose. 
corn, n. m. a horn, a trumpet. 
corff, n. m. & body. 
coron, n. f. a crown. 
cospi, v. inf. to punish. 
craig, n. f. a rock. 
credu, v. inf. to believe. 
crefyddwyr, n. plu. religious 

men; monks. 
cri, n. m. a cry ; noise. 
croesaw, n. m. a welcome. 
croesaw, croeso, v. imperat. 

welcome. 

crogi, v. inf. to hang. 
cryno, adj. neat, tidy. 
crynu, v. inf. to shake ; to 

tremble. 

cuddio, v. inf. to hide. 
euro, v. inf. to beat. 
cwbl, n. m. the whole ; all. 
cwpan, n. m. a cup. 
cwsg, n. m. sleep. 
cwsg, v. imperat. sleep. 
cwympo, v. inf. to fall. 
cwynfan, au, n.m. mourning, 

a complaint. 

cwyno, v. inf. to complain. 
cychwyn, v. inf. to set out ; to 

begin. 

cydsynio, v. inf. to agree. 
cyf agfOS, adj. very near. 
cyfaill. n. m. s. a friend. 
cyfeillion, n. plu. friends. 
cyf an, adj. whole. 
cyfarch, v. to salute. 
cyfarfod, c. inf. to meet. 

K 



cyf lym, adj. fast, swift. 

cyf erbyn, p rep. opposite. 

cyfnewid, /. inf. to exchange. 

cyfodi, v. inf. to rise, to raise. 

cyfoethog, adj. rich. 

cyfrwy, n. m. a saddle. 

cyfrwyo, v. inf. to saddle. 

cyf rwys, adj. sly, cunning. 

cyfryw, adj. such. 

cyfyngder, n. m. distress ; 
trouble. 

cyffesu, v. inf. to confess. 

cyhyd, adj. eq. as long. 

cylch, prep, around ; about. 

cymaint, adj. eq. as much; as 
nuny ; as large. 

cymdeithion, n. plu. compan- 
ions. 

cymerth, he took. 

cymeryd, v. inf. to take. 

Cymraeg, n. and adj. Welsh. 

cyn, adv. as ; so. 

cyn, prep, before. 

c y gynted, as soon as. 

cynal, v. inf. to maintain; to 
support. 

cynar, adj. early. 

cyneu, v. inf. to light ; to kindle. 

cynifer, adj. as many. 

cynt, adv. formerly. 

cyntaf, adj. first. 

cynull, v. inf. to collect to- 
gether. 

cyrhaedd, v. inf. to reach. 

cysgu. v. inf. to sleep. 

cystal, adj. eq. as good; as 
well. 

cywilydd, n. m. shame. 

cywir, adj. true, faithful. 

CH 

chwaer, n.f. a sister; plu. 

chwiorydd. 

chwaith, adv. neither ; either. 
chwardd, v. fut. will laugh. 
chwareu, v. inf. to play. 



146 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



chwech, adj. six. 
chwedl, n. f. a story. 
chwedyn, adv. afterwards. 
chwerthin, v. inf. to laugh. 
chwerw, adj. bitter'. 
chwilio, v. inf. to search. 
chwi, pro. 2nd pers. plu. you. 
chwithau, pro. pers. you (also). 



D 

da, adj. good ; adv. well. 
dacw, adv. there, yonder. 
dadweinio, v. inf. to unsheathe, 

to draw a sword from the 

sheath. 

daeth, v. irr. perf. he came. 
dafad, n. f. a sheep ; plu. defaid. 
dangos, v. inf. to show, to point 

out. 

daiar, n. f. earth, ground. 
dan, tan, prep, under. 
am dano, about him, about it. 
danfon, v. inf. to send. 
darfod, v. inf. to finish; to end. 
darfu, it happened. 
darllen, v. inf. to read. 
darn, n. m. a piece. 
darparu, v. inf. to prepare. 
dau, adj. two. 
daw, v. fut. a. he will come. 
de, adj. right (hand). 
dechreu, v. inf. to begin. 
defnydd, n. m. material. 
deffroi, v. inf. to wake (from 

sleep). 
deilen, n. f. s. a leaf ; dail, 

leaves. 
deiliaid, n. plu. vassals, those 

under a lord. 
delych, v. subj. thou mayest 

come. 

derbyn, v. inf. to receive. 
deuai, v, subj. he would come. 
deuant, they will come. 
dewis, v. inf. to choose. 
dl (ti) pron. pers. thou, thee. 



dlanc. v. inf. to escape. 
diangasai, v. subj. would have 

escaped. 

diau, adv. truly ; without doubt. 
diengi, you escape ; you run 

away. 
dienyddio, v. inf. to put to 

death. 

diflanu, v. inf. to disappear, 
diffaeth, at//, waste; desert; wild. 
dif faethwch, /?. /. a desert ; a 

wilderness. 

digio, v. inf. to be angry. 
digon, n. m. enough ; plenty. 
digonedd, n. m. abundance. 
digoni, v. inf. to satisfy. 
dillad, n. plu. clothes. 
dilyn, v. inf. to follow. 
dim, n. m. nothing. 
dim, adv. not. 

diniwed, adj. harmless . in- 
nocent. 

dioddef, v. inf. to bear; to suffer. 
diosg, v. inf. to take off ; to 

remove. 

disglaer, adj. bright ; shining. 
disgleirio, v. inf. to shine. 
disgyn, v. inf. to descend ; to 

come down. 

distawrwydd, n. m. silence. 
disylw, adj. unnoticed. 
diwedd, n. m. an end. 

o'r diwedd, adv. at last. 
diweddaf, adj. super, last. 
diwrnod, n. m. a day. 
do, adv. yes. 

dod, dyfod, v. inf. to come. 
dodi, v. inf. to put ; to place. 
doe, y ddoe, adv. yesterday. 
ddl, n. f. a dale ; a valley. 
dds, v. imperat. go. 
drach, trach, prep, behind, 

aside. 
drach el chefn, sideways, 

backward ; behind her back. 
draw, adv. far away. 
dros, tros, prep, across, over. 
drwg, adj. bad, naughty. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



drwg, n. m. evil, harm. 

drwy, trwy, prep, through. 

drws, n. m. a, door. 

dryllio, v. inf. to tear iu pieces. 

du, adj. black. 

Duw, n. m. God. 

dug, v. perf. s. he brought. 

d wbio, v. inf. to plaster ; to daub. 

dweud, v. inf. to say. 

dwfr, dwr, n. m. water. 

dwrn, n. m. a fist. 

dwylaw, n. plu. hands. 

dwyn, v. inf. to bring. 

dwyn ar go', to bring to 

memory, to remind. 
dychrynllyd, adj. dreadful. 
dychwelyd, v. inf. to return. 
dydd, n. m. a day. 
dyfod. dod, v. inf. to come. 
dyfodiad, n. m. a coming. 
dyf fryn, n. m. a valley. 
dygasant, v. irr. they brought. 

fr. dwyn, to bring. 
dyledus, adj. indebted, owing. 
dylwn, v. irr. I ought. 
dyma, adv. here is. 
dymuno, v. inf. to wish, to 

desire. 

dyna, adv. there is. 
dyn, n. m. a man. plu. dynion. 
dynol, adj. human. 
dyrnod, n. m. & blow. 
dysgu, v. inf. to learn ; to 

teach. 
dywedyd, dweud, v. inf. to 

say. 



ebe, v. irr. he said. 

ebrwydd, adv. soon. 

echdoe, adv. the day before 

yesterday. 
echnos, adv. the night before 

last night 

edrych, v. inf. to look. 
edy, gedy, gadawa, he will 

leave. 



ef, pro. pers. he, him, it. 

efe, pro. pers. he. 

eglwys, n. f. a church. 

ei, 'i, pro. pass, his, her ; its. 

eich, pro. pass. your. 

ein, 'n, pro. pass. our. - 

eira, n. m. snow. 

eisoes, adv. already. 

eistedd, v. inf. to sit. 

eithaf, adv. quite. 

eithafoedd, n. plu. furthest 

parts. 

eithr, con/, but. 
eleni, adv. this year. 
elor, n. m. a bier. 
elwyf, v. subj. I may go. 
enaid, n. m. a soul. 
enill, v. inf. to win. 
enw, n. m. a name. 
er, prep, since, from, for. 
er, con/, though. 
er hyny, adv. in spite of that. 
er pan, con/ since. 
er ys, prep, for ; since. 
erbyn, prep, against. 
ereill, adj. plu. other ; others. 
erioed, adv. ever. 
esgid, iau, n. f. a boot, a shoe. 
esgob, ion, n. m. a bishop. 
esgyn-faen, n. m. a mounting 

stone ; a horse-block. 
eto, adv. again. 
eu, 'u, pro. pass, their. 
euraidd, adj. golden. 
ewyllys, n. m. a will ; desire. 



fath, math, adj. such. 
fe, pro. pers. he, him, it. 
fe, particle, before Verbs, not 

translated. 
feirw, meirw, p/u. of marw, v. 

inf. to die. 
felly, adv. so, thus. 
lei, adv. as. 
f el y con/, that. 



148 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



fl, i, pron. pers. I, me. 

yn fore, adv. early. 
fry, adv. above. 
fy, pro. poss. my. 

i fyny, adv. up. 

FF 

ffalr, n.f. a fair. 
f fenestr, n. f. a window, 
ffddd, v. perf. s. he fled. 
ffoi, y. inf. to flee ; to run away. 
ffon, n. f. a rod ; a staff. 
ffordd, n. f. a way ; a road. 
Ffrancaeg, n.f. and adj. French. 
ffrwyn, n.f. a bridle 
ffrwyth, n.m. fruit. 
ffyddlon, adj. faithful. 
ffynidwydd, n. plu. pine trees. 
ffynon, n. f. a fountain ; a well. 
ffyrnig, adj. fierce ; violent. 



Q 

gadael, v. inf. to leave ; to let ; 

to allow. 

gadewir, is left ; will be left. 
gafaelyd, v. inf. to grasp ; to 

take hold of. 
gair, n.m. sing, a word. 
geiriau, n. plu. words. 
gallai, v. subj. he could. 
gallt, n. f. a sloping hill ; 

ascent. 

gallu, v. inf. to be able. 
zalaru, v. inf. to mourn. 
galw, v. inf. to call. 
gan, prep, with, by. 
ganddo, pro. prep, with him. 

with it. 

ganddynt, pro. prep, with them. 
garw, adj. rough ; bad. 
gauaf, n.m. winter. 
geiriadur, n.m. a dictionary. 
gelli, thou canst. 
gellwch, you can. 
gelwir, is called. 



geneth, n. f. a girl. 

genyf , pro. prep, with me. 

y mae genyf, I have. 

ger bron, prep, in the presence 

of; before. 
ger Haw, adv. and prep, near ; 

by. 

gerfydd, prep. by. 
gilydd, pro. one another. 
glan, adj. clean ; pure. 
glas, adj. green. 
glasach, adj. comp. greener. 
glasaf, adj. super, greenest. 
glo, n. m. coal. 
go, adv. somewhat. 
gobeithio, v. inf. to hope. 
gobenydd, n. m. a bolster; a 

pillow. 
goddef , v.inf. to bear ; to endure ; 

to permit. 

goddiweddu, v. inf.io overtake. 
gofal, -on, n.m. care. 
gofalus, adj. careful. 
gofid, n. m. trouble; sorrow. 
gofidlo, v. inf. to grieve ; to be 

grieved. 

gofyn, v. inf. to ask. 
goganu, v. inf. to mock : to 

despise. 
gollwng, v. inf. to let go; to 

loosen. 

gollyngwyd, was set free. 
golchi, v. inf. to wash. 
goleuo, v. inf. to light. 
golwg, n. m. or f. sight; view; 

appearance. 
golwyth, on, n. m. a slice of 

meat; a chop. 
gorchfygu, v. inf. to overcome; 

to conquer. 

gorchuddio, v. inf. to cover. 
gorchy myn, v. inf. to command. 
goreu, adj. sup. best. 
o'r goreu, adv. very well. 
gorf u, he overcame ; he con- 
quered. 
gormod, n. m. too much, too 

many. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



149 



gorffen, v. inf. to finish. 
gorffwys, v. inf. to rest. 
gorsedd, n. f. throne ; high seat. 
goruwch, prep, above. 
gosod, v. inf. to place. 
gostwng, v. inf. to lower. 
gresyn, n. m. pity. 
grym, n.m. force ; strength. 
gwaedd, n. f. a cry ; a shout. 
gwaeddu. v. inf. to cry; to shout. 
gwaered, n. m. a slope. 

i waered, adv. down. 
gwag, adj. vacant ; empty. 
gwahan, adj. separate. 

ar wahan, adv. apart. 
gwahan-ffordd, n. f. a road 

separating from another road. 
gwahanol, adj. different. 
gwahanu, v. inf. to separate. 
gwahodd, v. inf. to invite. 
gwaith, n. m. work. 
gwallt, n. m. hair. 
gwanhau, v. inf. to weaken. 
gwaredu, v. inf. to free ; to 

deliver. 

gwarogaeth, n. f. homage. 
gwas, n. m. sing, a man-servant. 
gweision, n. plu. men-servants. 
gwasgu, v. inf. to squeeze. 
gwastad, adj. level. 

yn wastad, adv. always ; 

continually. 

gwatwar, n. m. mockery; scorn. 
gwawrio v. inf. to begin to get 

light ; to dawn. 
gwayw-ffon, n. f. a spear. 
gwddf, n. m. a neck ; a throat. 
gwedi, wedi, prep, after. 
gweddill, n. m. remainder. 
gweddw, n. f. a. widow. 
gweini, v. inf. to serve. 
gweithio, v. inf. to work. 
gweithred, n. f. an act ; an 

action. 

gwell, adj. comp. better. 
gweled, gweld, v. inf. to see. 
gwenith, n. m. wheat. 
gwenol, - iaid, n. f. a swallow. 



gwenu, v. inf. to smile. 
gwers, i, n. f. a lesson. 
gwerth, n. m. worth ; value. 
gwerthfawr, adj. valuable. 
gwerthu, v. inf. to sell. 
gwineu-ddu, adj. brownish- 
black. 
gwir, adj. true. 

yn wir, adv. truly. 
gwisg, oedd, n. f. a dress. 
gwisgo, v. inf. to dress ; to wear. 
gwlad, n. f. a country. 
gwlaw, n. m. rain. 
gwledd n. f. a feast. 
gwn, I know. 
gwna, /. imperat. do ; make. 
gwnaeth, he did ; he made. 
gwneli, thou doest, makest. 
gwnfis, I did ; I made. 
gwneud, v. inf. to do ; to make. 
gwneuthur, v. inf. to make; to 

do. 

gwnio, v. inf. to sew. 
gwr, n. m. & man ; a husband. 

plu. gwyr, 

gwobr, n. f. a prize ; a reward. 
gwraig, n. f. s. a woman; a 

wife. 
gwragedd, n. plu. women ; 

wives. 
gwrandaw, gwrando, v. inf. 

to listen. 

gwr t hod, v. inf. to refuse. 
gwrthun, adj. unseemly. 
gwybod, v. inf. to know. 
gwybu. he knew. 
gwybyddaf, I shall know. 
gwyddai, he knew. 
gwyddost, thou knowest. 
gwyllt, adj. wild. 
gwyllt ei natur, hot-tempered. 
gwyn, adj. white. 
gwyrdd, adj. green 
gyd, con/, with. 
gyd a, ag, con/, with. 
i gyd, adv. altogether. 
gyneu, adv. a little while ago. 
gyru, v. inf. to drive ; to send. 



150 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



H 

ha ! inlerj. ha! 

haf, n. m. summer. 

hagr, adj. ugly; not nice looking. 

haiarn, n. m. iron. 

halogi, v. inf. to soil; to corrupt. 

haner, n. m. half. 

haner-dydd, n. m. mid-day. 

hanes, n. m. history ; a story. 

hardd, adj. beautiful. 

hau, v. inf. to sow. 

heb, prep, without. 

heb law, prep, besides; with- 
out. 

hedeg, ehedeg, v. inf. to fly. 
heddyw, adv. to-day. 
hefyd, adv. also. 
heibio, ad\r. by. 
heini', heinif , adj. lively ; fast. 
helbul, on, n. m. care ; 

trouble. 

helm, n./M. helmet; head-dress. 
helpu, helpio, v. inf. to help, 

to assist. 

heno, adv. to-night. 
heol, ydd, n.f. a road ; a street. 
o herwydd, prep, because of. 
hi, pro. pers. she, her, it. 
hinon, n. f. fine weather. 
hir, adj. long. 

hiraeth, n. m. regret, a longing. 
hithau, pro. pers. she (also), her 

(also). 

hoelen, n. f. a nail, a spike. 
hoffi, v. inf. to like. 
holl, adj. all ; whole. 
hollol, adj. total ; adv. entirely, 

completely. 

hoi It, n. f. cleft, a crack. 
holi, v. inf. to question, to 

examime. 
hon, adj. f. this. 

yr hon, pro. rel. /'.who, whom, 

which, that. 

hona, adj. f. that (yonder). 
hono, adj. f. that (out of sight). 



o h&no, pro. prep, of him, of 

it. 

honynt, pron. prep, of them. 
hun, hunan, pro. self. 
hunain, plu. selves. 
hwn, adj. m. this. 

yr hwn, pro. rel. who, whom, 

which, that. 

hwna, adj. that (yonder). 
hwnw, adj. that (out of sight). 
hwy, pro. pers. they, them. 
hwylio, v. inf. to sail. 
hwynt, pro. pers. them. 
hwyr, n. m. evening. 
hwythau, pro. pers. they, them. 
hyd, prep, to, until. 
hyd at, prep, as far as. 
hyd oni, con/, until. 
hyd nes, conj. until. 
hyn, adj. this ; these. 
yr hyn, pro. rel. which ; ttat 

that which ; what. 
hyna, adj. yonder. 
hynod, adv. very ; extremely. 
hyny, adj. that ; those. 
hysbys, adj. known ; evident. 
hysbysu, v. inf. to inform ; to 

tell. 
yn hytrach, adv. rather. 

NOTE. The aspirate h is 
placed before words begin- 
ning with vowels : 

(1) When they follow the 
Pronouns ym, ei (feminine), 
ein, eu. 

(2) When ei (masculine) , pre- 
cedes a finite Verb beginning 
with a vowel. 

I 

i, prep. to. 

i'm=i ym, to me. 

i'r=i yr, to the. 

iach, adj. well (in health). 

iarll, n. m. an earl ; a count. 

iarlles, n. f. a countess ; a lady. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



iarllaeth, n. f. an earldom; a 

county. 

lawn, adv. very. 
iddo, pro. prep, to him, to it. 
iddynt, pro. prep, to them. 
ie, adv. yes. 
iechyd, n. m. health. 
ieuanc, adj. young. 
inau, pro. pers.I (also), me (also). 
iro, v inf. to anoint. 
is, prep, below, under. 
islaw, prep, below ; beneath. 
isod, adv. below ; underneath. 
i'w, to his, to her, to its, to them. 
iwrch, n. m. a roebuck. 

LL 

lladd, v. inf. to kill. 

Hafurio, v. inf. to work ; to 
labour. 

Ilai, adj. less. 

llais, n. m. a voice. 

Hall, pro. indef. other. 

Haw, n. f. a hand. 

llaw dde, right hand. 

llaw-forwyn, ion, n. f. a 
maid servant. 

Hawen, adj. glad ; joyful. 

llawenydd, n. m. joy; gladness. 

llawer, adj. many ; much. 

1 1 awn, adj. full. 

llawr, n.m. floor ; ground. 
ar lawr, on the ground; down. 
i lawr, adv. down. 

llawr-Ien, n. f. carpet. 

lie, n. m. a place. 

He, adv. where. 
yn lie, prep, instead of. 

llech, n. f. a flat stone ; a slab. 

lied, adv. partly, fairly. 

lledr, n. m. leather. 

lief, n. f. a cry, a voice. 

llefain, v. inf. to cry. 

lleill, pro. plu. others. 

lien, i, n. f. a curtain : a cover- 
ing. 

llenwi, v. inf. to fill. 

lies, n. m. benefit. 



Mestr, i, n. m. a vessel. 
llety, n. m. & lodging. 
Hew, n. m. a lion. 
llian, n. m. s. linen, a linen 

towel. 

Hieiniau, n. plu. towels, cloths. 
Ilifo, v. inf. to flow. 
Hlw, n. m. a colour ; a stain. 
lliwio, v. inf. to colour ; to stain. 
Hong, n. f. & ship. 
llonaid, n.m. fulness, full of. 
Iloni, v. inf. to gladden. 
Hosgi, v. inf. to burn. 
llu, oedd, n. m. a large 

number ; an army. 
11 u o adar, a flock of birds. 
Hun, iau, n. m. a shape ; a 

picture. 

Hwdn, n. m. a young animal. 
llwybr, n. m. a path ; a way. 
llwyd, adj. grey. 
llwyth, n. m. a load. 
llwytho, v. inf. to load. 
llyfr, n. m. a book. 
llygad, n.m. an eye, plu. llygaid. 
Hynedd, adv. last year. 
Ilys, n. m. a court ; a palace. 
llythyr, n. m. a letter, an 

epistle. 

M 

mab, n. m. a son. 
maddeu, v. inf. to forgive. 
mae, v. pres. is. 
maen, n. m. a stone. 
maent, v. plu they are. 
maes, n. m. a field. 

i maes, adv. out. 
magu, v. inf. to nurse ; to bring 

up. 

mai, con/, that. 
main, adj. fine ; thin. 
maint, n. m. size. 

pa faint, pro. inter, how many; 

how much. 
mam, n f. a mother. 
man, n. m., n. f. a place. 
maneg, n.f. aglove ; plu. menyg. 



152 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



march, n. m. a. a horse. 
meirch, n. plu. horses. 
marchog, Ion, n. m. a knight. 
marmor, n. m. marble. 
marw, v. inf. to die. 
marwolaeth, n. f. death. 
math, au, n. m. kind; sort. 

pa fath, pro. inter, what kind. 

y fath, adj. such. 
mawr, adj. great ; large. 

yn fawr, large. 
medi, v. inf. to reap. 
medru, v. inf. to be able ; to 

know how. 
medd, n. m. mead ; a drink 

made from honey. 
medd-gell, n. f. a pantry; a 

cellar. 

meddai, /. he said, 
meddiant, n. m. possession. 
meddu, v. inf. to possess. 
meddwl, n. m. thought ; mind. 
meddwl, v. inf. to think. 
meddyliodd, v. he thought. 
meistr, n. m. a master. 
meistres, n. f. a mistress. 
melyn, adj. yellow. 
methu, v. inf. to fail. 
mewn, prep. in. 

i mewn, adv. in ; within. 
mi, fi, i, pro. pers. I, me. 
mil, n. f. a thousand. 
milgi, n. m. a greyhound. 
milwr, n. m. s. a soldier. 
milwyr, n.plu. soldiers. 
milwriaeth, n. f. warfare ; 

fighting. 

minau, pro. pers. I, me (also). 
mis, n. m. a month. 
modrwy, n. f. a ring, 
moes, v. imperat. give. 
m6r, n. m. sea. 
mor, adv. as, so. 
morwr, n. m. a sailor ; plu. 

morwyr. 

morwyn, ion, n. f. a maid. 
mur, n. m. a wall. 
mwng, n. m. a mane. 



mwy, adj. and adv. more ; larger 
mwyaf, adj. and adv. super. 

most ; largest. 

mwy-fwy, adv. more and more. 
mwyn, adj. gentle ; kind. 
m wynhau, v. inf. to enjoy. 
myfi, pro. pers. I, me. 
myned, v. inf. to go. 
mynegu, v. inf. to inform ; to 

relate. 

mynu, v. inf. to will ; to choose. 
mynych, adv. often. 
mynydd, n. m. a mountain. 

N 

na, nac, nad, nas, adv. no ; not. 

na, nag, con/, with comp. than. 
o na, would that. 

na ddo, adv. no. 

nage, adv. no. 

naill, adj. one, the other. 

nain, n. f. a grand mother. 

natur, n. f. temper, disposition. 

neb, pro. indef. no one ; any one. 

nefoedd, n.plu. heavens. 

neidio, v. inf. to jump. 
o'r neilldu, adv. aside. 

neillduol, adj. particular; cer- 
tain. 

neithiwr, adv. last night. 

nerth, n. m. strength. 

nes, conj. until. 

n6s, adj. comp. nearer. 

nesaf , adj. super, nearest ; next. 

nesu, nesau, v.inf. to draw near. 

neu, conj. or. 

neuadd, n. f. a hall ; a large 
room 

newid, v. inf. to change. 

newydd, adj. new. 

newydd, adv. newly, just. 

ni, pro. pers. we, us. 

ni, nid, nis, adv. not. 

nifer, n. m. number. 

niwed, n. m. injury ; harm. 

nof io, v. inf. to swim. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



nos t n. f. a night. 
noson, n. f. one night. 
noswaith, n. f. a night. 
nyth, n. N. W. m. ; S. W. f. a 
nest. 

o 

0, prep, of ; from ; out of. 

o achos, o blegid, prep, because 

of ; on account of. 
obry, adv. below, beneath. 
O dani, pro. prep, under her. 
o dano, pro. prep, under him. 
o fewn, prep, within. 
o herwydd, prep, because of. 
ochr, n. f. a side, 
oddi, prep. from. 
oddi allan, adv. outside ; from 

without. 

Oddi ar, prep, from ; since. 
oddi eithr, prep, except. 
oddi fewn, adv. from within. 
oddi tano, pro, prep, under him. 
oddi uchod, adv. from above. 
oddi wrth, prep. from. 
oddi wrthyf, pro. prep, from 

me. 

oddi yma, adv. from this place. 
oddi yna, adv. from yonder 

place. 

oddi yno, adv. from that place. 
oed, n. m. age. 
oes, v. pres. is. 
ofni, K. inf. to fear. 
oil, adj. all; the whole. 

01, n. m. IE ark ; track. 
ol, adj. hindmost. 

ar ol, prep, after ; behind. 

yn ol, adv. back. 

olaf, adj. super, last. 

olew, n. m. oil. 

olynol, adj. one after another ; 

in succession. 
o na, would that. 
ond, conj. but. 

oni, onid, adv. infer, is it not? 
oni, conj. until ; unless. 



oriau, n. plu. hours ; 3. awr. 
OS, conj. if (with indicative 
generally). 



pa, pro. adj. inter, what. 

pa bryd, adv. when. 

pa fodd, adv. how. 

pa ham, adv. why. 

pa wedd, adv. how. 

paid, v. imperat. do not ; don't, 

pan, conj. when. 

papur, n. m. paper. 

para, v. inf. to last. 

parch, n. m. respect. 

parch u, v. inf. to respect. 

pa rod, adj. ready. 

parodd, v. he caused. 

parotoi, v. inf. to prepare. 

pawb, pro. indef. everybody ; all. 

pe, ped, conj. if (with Sub- 
junctive generally). 

ped war, m. ped air, f. adj. four. 

ped war ar hugain, adj. twenty- 
four. 

peidio, v. inf. to cease ; to stop. 

pell, adj. faraway; distant. 

pellach, adj.comp. further away. 

pen, n. m. head ; end ; top. 
ar ben, adv. at an end ; 
finished. 

penelin, n. m. elbow. 

pentref, n. m. a, village. 

perchen, n. m. an owner. 

peri, v. inf. to cause. 

pesychu, v. inf. to cough. 

peth, n. m. a thing ; an object. 

peth, pro. indef. some (quantity). 

piau, v. to own ; to possess. 

plant, n. plu. children. 

plentyn, n. m. a child. 

plith, prep, among. 
yn mhlith, prep, among. 

plwm, n. m. lead. 

pob, adj. every. 

p'odd=pa fodd, adv. how, in 
what way. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



poeth, adj. hot. 

pori, v. inf. to graze. 

porth, n. m. a gateway ; a gate. 

pren, n. m. a tree. 

prif, adj : chief. 

prif-ddinas, n. f. chief city. 

priodas, n. f. & marriage. 

prin, adj. scarce. 

prin, adv. hardly. 

priodi, v. inf. to marry. 

profedigaeth, n.f. temptation. 

prof i, v. inf. to prove ; to taste. 

pryd, n. m. time. 

pryd, con/, when. 

Prydain, n. f. Britain. 

prydnawn, n. m. afternoon. 

prynu, v. inf. to buy. 

punt, n f. & pound (money) . 

pur, adj. pure ; adv. very, rather. 

purddu, adj. very black. 

purion, adv. very well. 

pwll, n. m. a pool ; a pit. 

pwy, pro. inter, who, whom, 
whose. 

pwy by nag, pro. indef. whoso- 
ever. 

pwys, n. m. a weight ; a pound. 

RH 

rhag, prep, from ; before ; lest. 
rhagddo, pro. prep, from before 

him. 
rhai, pro. indef. some. 

y rhai, pro. ret. who, whom, 

which. 

rhaid, adj. necessary. 
rhan, n. f. a part. 
rhanu, v. inf. to divide. 
rhedeg, v. inf. to run. 
rhif, n. m. number. 
rhodio, v. inf. to walk. 
rhoddi, rhoi, v. inf. to give. 
rhuo, v. inf. to roar. 
rhwng, prep, between. 
rhwygo, v. inf. to tear ; to 

break. 



rhwymo, v. inf. to bind. 

rhy, adv. too. 

rhybudd, n. m. a warning. 

rhydd, adj. free ; loose. 

rhyddhau, v. inf. to free ; to 
loosen. 

rhyfedd, adj. wonderful ; sur- 
prising. 

rhyfeddach, adj. comp. more 
wonderful. 

rhyfeddu, v. inf. to wonder. 

rhyngddynt, pro . prep, between 
them. 

rhyw, adj. some. 

rhyw rai, pro. indef. plu. some. 

rhyw un, pro. indef. some one. 



Saesneg, n. and adj. English. 

saeth, n. f. an arrow 

saethu, v. inf. to shoot. 

safai, v. subj. he might stand; 
he stood. 

safwn, v. plu. we shall stand. 

saith, adj. seven. 

sarff, n. f. a snake ; a serpent. 

sawl, pro. inter, how many, 
y sawl, pro. rel. he that. 

sefyll, v. inf. to stand. 

s6r, n. plu. stars, s. seren. 

siarad, v. inf. to speak, to talk. 

sicr, adj. sure. 

sidan, n. m. silk. 

siomi, v. inf. to disappoint. 

sut, adv. how. 

swllt, n. m. a shilling. 

swn, n. m. sound; noise. 

sychu, v. inf. to dry ; to wipe 
dry. 

sydd, v. pres. is. 

s>lwi, v. inf. to notice; to 
observe. 

synwyr, n. m. sense ; mean- 
ing. 

syrthio, v. inf. to fall: to 
tumble. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



tad, n. m. a father. 
taflu, v. inf. to throw. 
tafod, n. m. a, tongue. 
taith, n. f. a journey. 
talcen, n. m. forehead. 
talu, v. inf. to pay. 
tan, dan, prep, under. 
tan, n. m fire. 
tanllyd, adj. fiery. 
tanodd, adv. underneath. 
taraw, taro, v. inf. to knock ; 

to strike. 

tarian, n. f. a shield. 
tebyg, adj. like ; similar. 
tebygu, v. inf. to be like; to 

suppose. 

tfe}?, adj. fair ; clear. 
teimlo, v. inf. to feel. 
teithio, v. inf. to travel. 
telwch, v. from talu, to pay. 
terfyn, n. m. boundary ; end. 
teulu, n. m. a family. 
teyrnas, n. f. a kingdom. 
ti, pro. pers. thou, thee. 
tir, n. m. land ; soil. 
tithau, pro.pers. thou (also), thee 

(also) . 

tirion, adj. kind. 
tlawd, adj. poor. 
tlws, adj. m. tlos, f. pretty. 
toddi, v. inf. to melt; to dissolve. 
torf, n. f. a crowd. 
tori, v. inf. to break; to cut; 

to tear. 

tra, adv. very. 
tra, conj. whilst ; as long as. 
trach, drach, prep, behind; 

aide. 
tranoeth, adv. the following 

day ; on the morrow. 
trech, adj. superior. 
trechu, v. inf. to overcome ; to 

conquer. 

tref , n. f. & town. 
trenydd, adv. the day after to- 
morrow. 



treulio, v. inf. to spend. 
tri, m. tair, f. adj. three. 
tairgwaith, adv. thrice ; three 

times. 
trin, v. inf. to work at ; to 

handle. 

trin y tir, tilling the soil. 
trist, adj. sad ; sorrowful. 
tristwcn, adj. sadness ; sor- 
row. 

tro, n. m. a time ; a turn. 
trddd, he turned. 
troed, n. s. N.W. m. S.W. /. a 

foot. 

traed, n. plu. feet. 
troi, v. inf. to turn. 
tros, dros, prep, over ; across ; 

for ; instead of. 
trosodd, drosodd, adv. over. 
trosto, pro. prep, over him ; 

over it. 
trwm, adj. m. trom, f. heavy ; 

sad. 

trwodd, adv. through. 
trwy, prep, through. 
trwyddo, pro. prep, through 

him ; through it. 
trydydd, adj. third. 
tu, prep, towards. 
tu a, prep, towards. 
tu ag at, prep, towards. 
tu cefn i, prep, behind. 
tu draw i, prep, beyond. 
tu ol i, prep, behind. 
tuchan, n. m. a groaning. 
twmpath, n. m. rising ground ; 

a hillock ; a tump ; a mound. 
t^r, n. m. a tower. 
twrf, n. m. a noise ; a stir. 
twyllo, v. inf. to deceive. 
twyllwr, n. m. a deceiver; a 

cheater. 

ty, n. m. s. tai. plu. a house. 
tydi, pro. pers. thou (also), thee 

(also). 

tymer, n. f. temper. 
tymor, au, n. m. a season, 

time. 



1 56 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



tynu, v. inf. to draw ; to drag. 
tyred, v. imperat. come. 
tywel, n. m. a towel ; a cloth. 

u 

uchel, adj. high. 
uchod, adj. and adv. above. 
ufuddhau, v. inf. to obey. 
ugain, adj. twenty. 
un, adj. one. 

yr un, adj. the same ; each. 
unig, adj. only ; lonely. 

yn unig, alone. 
union, adj. straight. 

yn union, adv. at once. 
unrhyw, adj. any. 
unwaith, adv. once. 
uwch, adj. comp. higher. 
uwch, adv. above ; over. 

w 

wedi, prep, after. 

wedi, before Verbs to form Perfect 
Participle. 

weddw, gweddw, n. f. a 
widow. 

weithiau, adv. sometimes. 

wele, inter/, behold ; see. 

wn, gwn, I know. 

wrth, prep, to, by, with. 

wrthyf, pro. prep, to me. 

wrthynt, pro. prep, to them. 

wybren, n. f. the sky ; the air. 

<Vyr, n. m. a grandson, a grand- 
child. 

wythnos, n. f. a. week. 



y, yr, adj. the. 

y, yi" particle before Verbs, not 

translated. 
y yr />> re '- in which, of which, 

that. 

ychwaneg, adj. more. 
ychydig, adj. few, less ; a little. 
ydys, v. impers. it is. 



ydyw, yw, v.pres. is. 

yfed, v. inf. to drink. 

yfory, adv. to-morrow. 

ym, 'm, pro. pass, my (I, me). 

yma, adv. here. 

ymadael, /. inf. to leave ; to 

quit. 

ymadewais, I left. 
ymaith, adv. away. 
ymdaro, v. inf. to shift for one's 

self ; to manage. 
ymd'rewaist=ymdarewaist, 

you managed. 

ymdeithio. v. inf. to travel. 
ymddiddan, v. to talk. 
ymddiddan, n.m. conversation. 
ymenydd, n. m. the brain. 
ymestyn, v.inf, to stretch one's 

self ; to reach out. 
ymguddio, v. inf. to hide one's 

self. 
ymgynghori, v. inf. to consult 

together. 

ymladd, v. inf. to fight. 
ymlid, v. inf. to follow after; 

to pursue. 

ymlidiodd, he pursued. 
ymofyn, v. inf. to ask. 
ymolchi, v. inf. to wash one's 

self. 

ymosod, v. inf. to attack. 
ymosodiad, n. m. an attack. 
ymryddhau, v. inf. to free one's 

self. 
ymryson, v. inf. to quarrel ; to 

dispute. 

ymweled, /. inf. to visit. 
ymweliad, n. m. a visit. 
ymyl, n. m. side ; edge; brink. 
yn, prep. in. 
yn, particle before Verbs to form 

Imperfect Participle. 
yn ol, adv. back. 
yna, adv. then ; adj. that 

(yonder) . 

ynddi, pro. prep, in her ; in it. 
ynddo, pro. prep, in him ; in it. 
ynddynt, pro. prep, in them. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



157 



yn nghyd, adv. together. 

yno, adv. there. 

yntau, pro. pers. he, him (also). 

ynys, n. f. an island. 

Ynys Prydain, Great Britain. 

yr, adj. the. (see y). 

yr hyn, pro. rel. that which. 

yr oil, pro. indef. all ; whole. 

yr un, adj. the same ; each. 

ysgol, n. f. a school ; a ladder. 

ysgrech, n. f. a shriek ; a cry. 

ysgrifenu, v. inf. to write. 

ysgwydd, n. f. a shoulder. 



y sigo, v. inf. to bruise. 
ystabl, n. m. a stable. 
ystafell, n. f. a room ; a 

chamber. 
ystenaid, n. f. a pitcherful ; a 

jugful. 

ystlys, n. f. a side. 
ystorm, n. f. a storm. 
ystry t, n. f. a street. 
ystyllen, n. f. & board; a shelf. 
yth, 'th, pro. pers. thy. 
yw, ydy W, v. pres. is. 



153 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



VOCABULARY II, 

(ENGLISH). 



A, AN, not translated. 

ABLE, TO BE, gallll. 

ABOUT, am, oddeutu, o amgylch. 
ABOVE, fry, uchod, uwch. 
ACQUAINTED WITH, TO BE, adnabod, 

adwaen. 

AFTER, gwedi, wedi, ar ol. 
AGAIN, eto. 
AGAINST, yn erbyn. 
ALL, pawb, yr holl, yr oil. 
ALLOW, TO, gadael, caniatau. 
ALMOST, bron, braidd. 
ALONG, ar hyd. 
ALREADY, eisoes. 

ALTOGETHER, 1 gyd, JD. hollol. 

ALWAYS, pob amser, yn wastad. 
AND, a, ac. 
AND THE, a'r. 

ANOINT, TO, IrO. 

ANSWER, TO, ateb. 

ANY, unrhyw. 

ANY ONE, rhyw un. 

APART, ar wahan. 

APPLE, afal, plu. afalau. 

AROUND, am, o amgylch. 

AUROW, saeth, plu. saethau. 

AS, fel ; cyn, mor ; a, ag. 

ASIDE, o'r neilldu. 

ASK, TO, gofyn. 

ASS, asyn, mid, plu. asynod, 

mulod. 
AT, wrth, ar. 
AWAT, ymaith, ffwrdd. 



B 

BACK, cefn, plu. cefnau. 
BACK, yn ol. 
BAD, drwg. 
BE, TO, bod. 

BEAT, TO, CUrO. 

BEFORE, cyn, rhag, o flaen, ger 

bron. 

BEGIN, TO, dechreu. 
BEHIND, tu cefn, tu ol i, ar ol. 
BEHOLD, wele. 
BELIEVE, TO, credu. 
BELOW, obry, isod. 
BENEATH, tanodd, is law. 
BESIDES, heblaw. 
BETWEEN, rhwng. 
BEYOND, tu draw i. 
BIND, TO, rhwymo. 
BLACK, du, plu. duon. 
BOOK, llyfr, plu. llyfrau. 
BOY, bachgen, plu. bechgyn. 
BREAD, bara. 

BREAK, TO, tori. 

BROTHER, brawd, plu. brodyr. 
BULL, tarw, plu. teirw. 

BURN, TO, llosgi. 

BUY, TO, prynu. 



CALF, 110, plu. lloi. 

CAME, daeth. 
CAN, medru, gallu. 

CAREFUL, gofaluS. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



159 



CHILDREN, plant, s. plentyn. 
CHOOSE, TO, dewis. 
CHURCH, eglwys, plu. eglwysi. 
CLOCK, cloc, cloch, plu. clociau, 

clychau. 
CLOTHES, dillad. 
COME, TO, dyfod, dod. 
COMMAND, TO, gorchymyn. 
CONFESS, TO, cyffesu, cyfaddef. 
CONTINUALLY, yn wastad. 
cow, buwch, plu. buwchod. 
CRY, TO, llefain. 

D 

DAILY, beunydd, bob dydd. 
DAY, dydd, diwrnod, plu. 
dyddiau, diwrnodau. 

DECEIVE, TO, twyllo. 

DICTIONARY, geiriadur, plu. 

geiriaduron. 
DIG, TO, cloddio. 
DINNER, ciniaw, plu. ciniawau. 
DO, TO, gwneud, gwneuthur. 
DO, neg. and inter, see Less. 7. 
DO NOT, DON'T *. paid a, phi. 

peidiwch a. 
DOG, ci, plu. cr&n. 
DOOR, drws, plu. drysau. 
DOWN, i lawr, i waered. 
DOWNWARD, i lawr. 
DRAW, TO, tynu. 

DRESS, TO, gWiSgO. 

DRINK, TO, yfed. 
DRIVE, TO, gyru. 
DROWN, TO, bodcli. 



EACH, yr un, pob, pob uu. 
EARLY, yn fore, yn gyuar. 
EARN, TO, enill. 
EAT, TO, bwyta. 
EIGHT, wyth. 
END, pen, plu. penau. 
AT AN END, ar ben. 
ENOUGH, digon. 



ENTIRELY, yn liollol. 

EVER, byth, erioed. 

EVERY, pob. 

EYE, llygad, plu. llyguid. 



FABLE, chwedl, plu. chwedlau. 

FAIL, TO, methu. 

PAIR, ffair, plu. ffeiriau. 

F.AIRLY, go, lied. 

FALL, TO, syrthio, cwympo. 

PAR, pell, yn mhell. 

AS FAR AS, hyd. 

FATHER, tad, plu. tadau. 

FAULT, bai, plu. beiau. 

FEAR, TO, Ofni. 

FEW, ychydig. 

FIELD, cae, plu. caeau. 

FILL, TO, llenwi. 

FINALLY, yn ddiweddaf, yn olaf, 

FIND, TO, cael. 

FINISH, TO, gorffen. 

FIRE, tan, plu. tanau. 

FIRST, cyntaf, yn gyntaf . 

FIVE, pump. 

FLOW, TO, llifo. 

FOLLOW TO, dilyn. 

FOR, am, er, i, tros, dros, er ys. 

FORGET, TO, anghofio. 

FORGIVE, TO, maddeu. 

FORWARD, yn nilaen. 

FRENCH (language) Ffrancaeg. 

FRIEND, cyfaill,^M. cyfeillion. 

FROM, oddi, oddi wrth, o, er, gan. 



GATE, porth, plu. pyrth. 

GIRL, merch, geneth, lodes, plu. 

merched, genethod. lodesi. 
GLOVE, maneg, plu. menyg. 
GO, TO, myned, myn'd. 
GOD, Duw, plu. Duwiau. 
GOOD, da. 

GRANDFATHER, taid, tad-CU. 

GRANDMOTHER, nain, mam-gu. 



(6o 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



REAT, mawr. 

GREATER, UlWy. 

GREATEST, mwyaf. 

H 

HAIR, gwallt. 

HAND, llaw, plu. dwylaw. 

HAVE, TO, cael. 

HAVE, before verbs, Lesson 4. 

HE, ef, fe, efe. 

HE is, y mae ef . 

HEAR, TO, clywed. 

HER, obj. hi ; poss. ei, 'i. 

HERE, yma. 

HERSELF, ei hun, ei hunan. 

HIDB, TO, cuddio. 

HIDE ONE'S SELF, TO, ymguddio. 

HIM, ef, fe, efe. 

HIMSELF, ei hun, ei hunan. 

HIS, ei, 'i. 

HOLD, gafael. 

HORSE, ceffyl, plu. ceffylau. 

HOT, poeth, plu. poethion. 

HOUSE, ty, plu. tai. 

HOUR, awr, plu. oriau. 

HOW, adv. comp. cyn, mor, inter. 

sut. 

HOW MANY, sawl, pa sawl. 
HOW MUCH, faint, pa faint. 

I 

i, mi, fi, i. 

IF, os, pe. 

IN, yn, mewn. 

INDEED, yn wir. 

INSTEAD, OF, yn lie, tros, dros. 

INTO, i, i mewn. 

is, mae, yw, sydd, oes. 

is IT P ai ? 

is IT NOT ? oni, onid, onis ? 

JT, ef, fe, hi. 

ITS, ei, 'i. 



JUDGE, TO, barnu. 
JUST, adv. newydd. 



K 

KEEP, TO, cadw. 
KILL, TO, lladd. 

KING, brenin, plu. brenhinoedd. 
KNOW, TO, gwybod, adnabod. 
adwaen. 



LAND, tir, plu. tiroedd. 
LARGE, mawr. 
LAST, diweddaf , olaf . 
LAST, TO, para. 
LASTLY, yn olaf. 
LAST NIGHT, neithiwT. 
LAUGH, TO, chwerthin. 
LAY, TO, dodi. 

LEAD, plwm. 

LEAD, TO, arwain. 

LEADER, blaenor, plu. blaenoriaid. 

LEARN, TO, dySgU. 

LEAVE, TO, gadael, ymadael. 

LESS, llai. 

LESSON, gwers, plu. gAversj. 

LEST, rhag. 

LET, TO, gadael. 

LETTER, llythyr, plu. Uythyrau. 

LIFE, bywyd, plu. bywydau. 

LION, llew, plu. llewod. 

LISTEN, TO, gwrandaw, gwraiido. 

LITTLE, bach, bychan, ychydig. 

LIVE, TO, byw. 

LOAD, TO, llwytho. 

LONG, hir, plu. hirion. 

LOOK, TO, edrych. 

LOSE, TO, colli. 

LOVE, TO, caru, hoffi. 



MAKE, TO, gwneud, gwneuthur. 
MAN, dyn, gwr, plu. dynion, 

gwyr. 

MANY, llawer. 
MANY, AS, cymaint. 
MANY, TOO, gormod. 
MASTER, meistr, plu meistri. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



161 



ME, mi, fi, i. 

MELT, TO, toddi. 

MEN, dynion, gwyr. 

MIDDLE, canol. 

MONEY, arian. 

MORE, mwy. 

MORNING, boreu, plu. boreuau. 

Most, mwyaf. 

MOTHER, mam, plu. marnau. 

MUCH, llawer. 

MUCH, AS, cymaint. 

MUCH, TOO, gormod. 

MY, fy, ym, 'm. 

MYSELF, fy hun, fy hunan. 

N 

NAME, enw, plu. enwau. 

NAUGHTY, drwg. 

NEAR, agos, ar bwys, ger Haw. 

NEARLY, bron, agos. 

NEW, newydd. 

NEWLY, newydd. 

NEXT, nesaf. 

NIGHT, nos. 

NO, naddo, nage (see Less. 2, 7). 

NOT, ni, nid, nis ; na, uac, nod. 

NOT, dim. 

NOBODY, neb. 

NO ONE, neb. 

NOTHING, dim. 

NOW, yn awr, y rwan. 



OF, o. 

OF THE, O'r. 

OFF, oddi ar, ymaith, ffwrdd. 

OFTEN, yn ami. 

ON, adv. yn mlaen ; prep. ar. 

ONCE, unwaith. 

ONE, un. 

OPEN, TO, agor. 

OPPOSITE TO, ar gyfer. 

OTHER, arall ; OTHERS, ereill. 

OTHER, THE, y Hall J OTHERS, THE, 

y lleill. 
OUR, ein, 'n. 
OURSELVES, ein hunain. 



OUT, allan, imaes. 

OVER, tros, dros, trosodd, uwch. 



PAPER, papur, plu. papurau. 

PART, rhan, plu. rhanau. 

PARTLY, lied ; mewn rhan. 

PAST, adv. heibic. 

PAY, TO, talu. 

PENNY, ceiuiog, plu. ceiniogau. 

PIT, pwll, plu. pyllau. 

PLACE, man, lie, plu. manau, 

lleoedd. 

PLACE, TO, gosod. 
PLAY, TO, chwareu. 
POOR, tlawd, plu. tlodion. 
POUND (money), punt, plu. 

punoedd. 
POUND (weight), pwys, plu. 

pwysau, pwysi. 
PRAISE, TO, canmol. 
PREPARE, TO, darparu. 

PRETTY, tlws, f. tloS. 

PRIZB, gwobr, 'plu.. gwobrau. 
PROMISE, TO, addaw. 
PULL, TO, tynu. 

PUNISH, TO, COSpi. 

PUT, TO, dodi, rhoddi. 

Q 

QUEEN, brenines, plu. breninesau. 

QUESTION, TO, holi. 



RATHER, lied, pur, yn hytrach. 
REACH, TO, cyrhaedd. 
READ, TO, darllen. 
REAP, TO, medi. 
RECEIVE, TO, derbyn. 
RECITE, TO, adrodd. 
RED, coch, plu. cochion. 
REFUSE, TO, gwrthod. 

REMEMBER, TO, COfio. 

RESPECT, TO, parchu. 
RIVER, afon, plu. afonydd. 
RUN, TO, rhedeg. 



1 62 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



SAIL, TO, hwylio. 

SAME, yr un. 

SATISFY, TO, digoni. 

SAVE, TO, achub, cadw. 

SAT, TO, dwedyd, dweud. 

SCARCE, prin. 

SCHOOL, ysgol, plu. ysgolion. 

SEA, m6r, plu. moroedd. 

SECONDLY, yn ail. 

SEE, TO, gweled, gwel'd. 

SEEK, TO, ceisio. 

SERVANT, gwas, plu. gweision. 

SEVEN, saith. 

SEVERAL, amryw. 

SHALL BE, bydd. 

SHE, hi. 

SHEEP, dafad, plu. defaid. 

SHIP, Hang, plu. llongau. 

SHOOT, TO, saethu. 

SHOULDER, ysgwydd, plu. 

ysgwyddau. 
SHOUT, TO, gwaeddi. 
SHOW, TO, dangos. 
SHUT, TO, cau. 
SIDE, ochr, plu. ochrau. 
SINCE, er. 
SING, TO, canu. 
SINGING, yn cairn. 
SILVER, arian. 

SISTER, chwaer, plu. chwiorydd. 
SIT, TO, eistedd. 
SIXTY, tri ugain. 

SLEEP, TO, CySgU. 

SLOW, araf, SLOWLY, yn araf . 

SMILE, TO, gwenu. 

SNOW, eira. 

so, felly, mor. 

SOIL, tir, j.ridd. 

SOLDIER, milwr, plu. milwyr. 

SOME, rhyw, plu. rhai. 

SOME ONE, rhyw un. 

SOMETIMES, ambell waith. 

SOMEWHAT, gO. 

SON, mab, plu. meibion. 
SOON, yn tuan. 
SPEAK, TO, eiarad. 



SPEND, TO, treulio. 

STAND, TO, sefyll. 

STAR, seren, plu. sr. 

STAY, TO, aros. 

STONE, careg, plu. ceryg. 

STORY, chwedl, hanes, plu. 

chwedlau, hanesion. 
STRIKE, TO, taraw, taro. 
SUCH, y fath, cyfryw. 
SUFFICIENT, digon. 
SWIM, TO, nofio. 

T 

TAKE, TO, cymeryd. 
TALK, TO, siarad. 

TEACH, TO, dySgU. 

TEACHER, athraw, plu. athrawon. 

TEAR, TO, tori. 

TEAR IN PIECES, TO, drylllO, 

darnio. 
TELL, TO, dywedyd, dweud, 

adrodd. 
TEMPTATION, profedigaeth, plu. 

prof edigaethau . 
TEN, deg. 

THAT, hwna, hwnw, /. hona, hono. 
THAT, conj. mai, taw. 
THE, y, yr. 
THEE, ti, di. 

THEIR, CU. 

THEM, hwy, hwynt, nhw. 
THEMSELVES, eu hunaui. 
THEN, yna. 
THERE, yno, acw. 
THESE, hyn, y rhai hyn. 
THEY, hwy, hwynt, nhw. 
THING, peth, plu. pethau. 
THIS, hwn, /. hon. 
THROUGH, trwy, drwy. 
THUS, felly. 

TILL, TO, trin, llafurio. 
TILL, conj. hyd nes, hyd oni. 
TIME, amser, plu. amserau. 
TO, at, i, wrth. 
TO-DAY, heddyw. 
TOGETHER, yn nghyd. 

TO HIS, TO HER, TO ITS, TO THEIR, 

i'w. 



A GUIDE TO WELSH. PART II. 



i6 3 



TO-MORROW, yfory. 

TO-NIGHT, heno. 

TOO, rhy, hefyd. 

TOO MUCH, TOO MANY, gormod. 

TOTALLY, yn hollol. 

TOWARDS, tu ag at. 

TOWN, tref, pin. trefydd. 

TRULY, yn wir. 

TRY, TO, ceisio. 

TWENTY, tlgaill. 

TWICE, dwy waith. 
TWO, dau. 

u 

UNDER, tan, dan. 
UNDOUBTEDLY, yn ddiau. 
UNTIL, hyd oni, nes. 
UP, i fyny. 
UPWARD, ar i fyny. 
us, ni. 

V 

TERSE (bible), adnod, plu. 

adnodau. 

VERY, iawn, pur, tra. 
VERY WELL, o'r goreu, purion, 

da iawn. 

VILLAGE, pentref, pin. pentrefydd. 
VOICB, llais. plu. lleisiau. 

w 

WAIT, TO, aros. 

WALK, TO, cerdded, rhodio. 

WAS, oedd. 

WASH, TO, golchi 



WASH ONE'S SELF, TO, ymolchi. 
WATER, dwfr, dwr. 
WE, ni. 

WEAR, TO, gWlSgO. 

WENT, aeth. 

WERE, oeddent. 

WHAT, pro. infer, beth, pa beth, 

rel. yr hyn. 

WHEN, pan, pryd, pa bryd. 
WHERE, lie, pa le. 
WHICH, pro. inter, pa, pwy, rel. 

yr hwn, yr hon, yr hyn. 
WHITE, gwyn, plu. gwynion. 
WHo,^?ro, inter, pwy, rel. yr hwn, 

yr hon, yr hyn. 
WHOLE, holl, oil, cyfan. 
WHOSOEVER, y neb, y sawl, pwy 

bynag. 

WIN, TO, enill. 

WINDOW, ffenestr, plu. ffenestri. 
WITH, gyd a, a. 
WOMAN, gwraig, plu. gwragedd. 
WORK, TO, gweithio. 
WORK, gwaith, plu. gweithiau. 



YEAR, blwyddyn, plu. blynyddau. 
YEAR, LAST, y llyiiedd. 
YEAR, THIS, eleni. 
YES, do, i'e (Less. 2,7). 

YESTERDAY, doe, y ddO6. 

YONDER, acw, draw. 

YONDER IS, daCW. 

YOU, chwi. 
YOUR, eich, 'ch, 
YOURSELVES, eich hunain. 



WREXHAM : PRINTED BY HUGHES & SON. 



Of interest to Keltic Students. 



A Grammar of the Welsh Language : Based on the most 

approved systems," with copious examples from some of the most 
correct Welsh writers. By the Rev. THOMAS ROWLAND. Cloth, 2/6 

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS. 

" Decidedly the best Grammar^of modern Cymraeg extant." 

" Mr. Rowland's Grammar is not only based on the most approved 
systems, but, as a manual, is the moat important, useful and satisfactory 
work that has been penned upon the sub;ect." 

" I think it one of the most valuable modern contributions to Welsh 
Literature." 

" Nid Gramadeg o'r iaith Saesneg wedi ei gyfieithu a'u draws- 
gymhwyso at y Gymraeg yw hwn ; ond Gramadeg o'r iaith Gymraeg yn 
ei holl deithi a'i dulliai priodol ei hun, er ei fod wedi ei ysgrifennu yn 
Saesneg. Ceir yma holl esgyrn yr iaith, nid yn unig ar wahan, ond hefyd 
mewn perthynas a'u gilydd ; a theflir goleuni ar y cymalau bychain 
sydd yn cysylltu yr aelodau a'u gilydd." 

Welsh Exercises, adapted to the improved edition of Rowland's 
Grammar, with copious explanatory notes, by the Rev. THOMAS 
ROWLAND. Cloth, 2/6. 

" We are pleased tb find that this Work, is a worthy sequel to the 
Grammar ; and Mr. Rowland can be safely congratulated upon having 
brought a thorough knowledge of the rules of one of the most ancient 
and most interesting branches of the Keltic within the reach and powers 
of an ordinary English student." 

Detholion o Straeon y Pentan: SELECTIONS FROM 

" STRAEON y PENTAN." By DANIEL OWEN. Edited, with notes 
and a Glossary, by T. GWYNN-.TONES. Cloth, l/- 

" The preparation of the following selections has been undertaken 
upon the suggestion of Keltic scholars who feel that the stories of 
Daniel Owen, suitably treated, would constitute a useful Reader to meet 
the wants of the ever increasing number of students who desire to 
become acquainted at the same time with modern literature, and with 
the living speech as represented in the dialects. 

Such a treatment has been the aim of this little work, which, how- 
ever, does not claim to be exhaustive. As the book is meant to be of 
assistance to student*, I have attempted to make the text orthograpbically 
consistent, but points of grammar and of idiom are dealt with in 
foot notes, and a glossary added." From the Preface. 

HUGHJS & SON, PUBLISHERS, WREXHAM. 



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DYDDIAU YSQOL : Sef Detholion o Weithiau Daniel Owen, gyda 

Geirfa (" Vocabulary ") yn cynnwys y geiriau yn eu ffurt Wreiddiol 

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pan gyda Gwerei mewn Natur (" Nature Lessons "). 
OWEN GLYNDWR : Gan L. J. ROBERTS, M.A. Gyda Nodiadau 

a 9 o Ddarluniau. Argraffiad Newydd. Plyg, 7i x 5, Llythyren 

Fras. Llian, 9c. 

" Dyddorol ac ysgolheigaidd." O. M. EDWARDS, M.A., yn " Cymru." 

YSTEN SIGNED: Gan y Canghellydd SILVAN EVANS ac I VON. 

For .study of style in composition, w can recommend this collection 

of folk-lore. Llian, 1/- 

CYMRU FU : Casgliad diguro o Len Gwerin. 494 t.d. Llian, 2.1- 

Arpraffiad i'r Ysgolion mewn 3 Llyfr. Llian, 9c. yr un. 
MABINOQION (O Lyfr Coch Hergest) : Golygwyd gan J. M. 

EDWARDS, M.A. Dau Lyfr, gyda Darluniau yn yr arddnU 

Foreuol. Llian, Pris, 1/- yr un. 
TLYSAU YNYS PRYDAIN : Gan H. BRYTHON HUGHES, 

Ysgolfeistr. Gyda Map, Darluniau, Achau, Mynegai Enwol, a 

Geirfa Eglurhaol. Llian, 1/6. 

Ardderchog fel llyfr i'r Ysgolion Sir, ac i ddosbarthiadau uchaf yr 
Ysgolion Elfennol. 
LLYFR DARLLEN AC Y8QRIFENNU : Dyfyniadau o'r Clasuroa 

Cymreig, ynghyda Gwersi pwrpasol sylf aenedig arnynt, a Nodiadau 

Bywgraffyddol. Gan JOHN LLOYD, M.A., Ysgol Sir, Abermaw. 

Gyda Darluniau. Llian, 1/3. 

" We believe it will be the best text-book of Welsh composition for a 
good many years." THE WELSH OUTLOOK. 
DETHOLION O STRAEON Y PENTAN (DANIEL OWBN). 

Trefnedig ar gais arbennig rhai o Ysgolheigion Celtaidd Llydaw, 

yr Iwerddon, &c., er eu cynorthwyo i ddod yn hyddysg a chynenu 

ag athrylith a thafodiaith gwlad Daniel Owen. Dan olygiaeth 

T. GWYNN JONES. Llian, II- 
DETHOLIAD O DRAETHODAU LLENYDDOL DR. LEWIS 

EDWARDS, QYDA NODIADAU A CHWESTIYNAU A 

MYNEQAI FYWQRAFFYDDOL A CHYFFREDINOL : 

Gan JOHN LLOYD. M.A.. Ysgol Sir. Abermaw. Llian. 1/- 



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PERLAU AWEN ISLWYN: Wedi eu dethol gan J. M. EDWARDS, 
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A GUIDE TO WELSH PART I. Revised and Enlarged Edition. 
144 pages. Cloth, 1/3. 

A GUIDE TO WELSH PAKT II. 152 pages, Cloth, 1/3. Treat* 
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manner. Revised and Enlarged Edition. 

THE SCHOLAR'S HANDBOOK (Bi-Lingual) of the English and 
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WELSH AND ENGLISH FOR DAY SCHOOLS. By T. BOWEN. 
128 pages, Cloth, 1/- Cynllun newydd effeithiol i ddysgu y 
Saesneg drwy y Gymraeg. Darluniau rhagorol. 

PIECES FOR TRANSLATION : Selected and arranged by J. M. 
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Welsh into English, and English into Welsh, passages illustrating 
the Idioms of the two Languages. List of flowers and trees, 
names of Towns. Useful also as a Reading Book and for Dicta- 
tion. Cloth, 9d. 

POEMS OF WALES : A selection of English Poems for use 
in Schools. Selected by E. D. JONES, M.A., Head Master 
Intermediate School, Barmouth. 4 Illustrations, Limp Cloth, 9d. 



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Am fanylion pellach, a " specimen pages " o Lyfrau Addysgiadol, 
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